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Table 1 Characteristics of cirrhotic patients with first esophageal variceal bleeding and mortality, Taiwan, 2005–2010

From: Effect of coexisting diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease on mortality of cirrhotic patients with esophageal variceal bleeding

  42-day mortality One-year mortality
  Survivors (n = 699) (%) Death (n = 189) (%) p-value Survivors (n = 488) (%) Death (n = 400) (%) p-value
Year of first diagnosis of EVB       
 2005 (n = 167) 132 (18.9) 35 (18.5) 0.909 84 (17.2) 83 (20.8) 0.585
 2006 (n = 151) 122 (17.4) 29 (15.3) 0.808 84 (17.2) 67 (16.8) 0.864
 2007 (n = 142) 101 (14.4) 41 (21.7) 0.170 72 (14.8) 70 (17.5) 0.686
 2008 (n = 134) 102 (14.6) 32 (16.9) 0.769 79 (16.2) 55 (13.7) 0.729
 2009 (n = 146) 120 (17.2) 26 (13.8) 0.648 83 (17.0) 63 (15.7) 0.864
 2010 (n = 148) 122 (17.5) 26 (13.8) 0.615 86 (17.6) 62 (15.5) 0.793
Sex       
 Female (n = 243) 202 (28.9) 41 (21.7) 0.049 151 (30.9) 92 (23.0) 0.008
Age at the first diagnosis of EVB       
  < 50 (n = 261) 212 (30.3) 49 (25.9) 0.433 165 (33.8) 96 (24.0) 0.002
 50–69 (n = 437) 335 (47.9) 102 (54.0) 0.302 230 (47.1) 207 (51.8) 0.171
≥70 (n = 190) 152 (21.8) 38 (20.1) 0.626 93 (19.1) 97 (24.2) 0.061
Complication of cirrhosis       
 HCC (n = 359) 247 (35.3) 112 (59.3) <0.001 127 (26.0) 232 (58.0) <0.001
 Infection during hospitalization (n = 58) 40 (5.7) 18 (9.5) 0.061 26 (5.3) 32 (8.0) 0.109
Previous episodes of decompensation required hospitalization within 1 year before EVB       
Ascites       
 0 (n = 711) 577 (82.6) 134 (70.9) <0.001 417 (85.4) 294 (73.5) <0.001
 1 (n = 114) 82 (11.7) 32 (16.9) 0.058 52 (10.7) 62 (15.5) 0.038
  ≥ 2 (n = 63) 40 (5.7) 23 (12.2) 0.002 19 (3.9) 44 (11.0) <0.001
Hepatic encephalopathy       
 0 (n = 789) 628 (89.9) 161 (85.2) 0.247 447 (91.6) 342 (85.4) 0.026
 1 (n = 60) 47 (6.7) 13 (6.9) 0.940 31 (6.4) 29 (7.3) 0.724
  ≥ 2 (n = 39) 24 (3.4) 15 (7.9) 0.041 10 (2.0) 29 (7.3) 0.001
SBP       
 0 (n = 846) 670 (95.9) 176 (93.1) 0.329 477 (97.8) 369 (92.3) <0.001
 1 (n = 35) 28 (4.0) 7 (3.7) 0.850 10 (2.0) 25 (6.2) 0.003
  ≥ 2 (n = 7) 1 (0.1) 6 (3.2) <0.001 1 (0.2) 6 (1.5) 0.028
Etiology of cirrhosis       
 HBV (n = 340) 250 (35.8) 90 (47.6) 0.003 168 (34.4) 172 (43.0) 0.009
 HCV (n = 306) 248 (35.5) 58 (30.7) 0.219 168 (34.4) 138 (34.5) 0.982
 Alcoholism (n = 382) 313 (44.8) 69 (36.5) 0.042 236 (48.4) 146 (36.5) <0.001
Comorbidities       
 DM (n = 332) 270 (38.6) 62 (32.8) 0.142 187 (38.3) 145 (36.3) 0.526
 CKD (n = 65) 43 (6.2) 22 (11.6) 0.010 23 (4.7) 42 (10.5) 0.001
 COPD (n = 216) 174 (24.9) 42 (22.2) 0.448 124 (25.4) 92 (23.0) 0.405
 Asthma (n = 87) 69 (9.9) 18 (9.5) 0.887 49 (10.0) 38 (9.5) 0.787
 TB (n = 28) 24 (3.4) 4 (2.1) 0.358 18 (3.7) 10 (2.5) 0.313
Previous episode of acute coronary syndrome (n = 184) 145 (20.7) 39 (20.6) 0.974 96 (19.7) 88 (22.0) 0.395
Previous episode of cerebrovascular accident (n = 102) 73 (10.4) 29 (15.3) 0.061 45 (9.2) 57 (14.3) 0.019
Low income       
 Yes (n = 24) 20 (2.9) 4 (2.1) 0.575 7 (1.4) 17 (4.3) 0.010
Urbanization       
 Urban (n = 438) 339 (48.5) 99 (52.4) 0.357 246 (50.4) 192 (48.0) 0.475
 Normal (n = 316) 243 (34.8) 73 (38.6) 0.357 160 (32.8) 156 (39.0) 0.120
 Rural (n = 134) 117 (16.7) 17 (9.0) 0.030 82 (16.8) 52 (13.0) 0.214
  1. CKD chronic kidney disease, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, DM diabetes mellitus, EVB esophageal variceal bleeding, HBV hepatitis B virus, HCC hepatocellular carcinoma, HCV hepatitis C virus, SBP spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, TB pulmonary tuberculosis