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Table 2 Mean healthcare costs per patient per year (mean (SD) in Euro) (including both total and specific costs) for primary and secondary care IBS patients and matched controls in the years before and after the diagnosis of IBS

From: Comparison of medical costs generated by IBS patients in primary and secondary care in the Netherlands

  T = −3 Mean (SD) T = −2 Mean (SD) T = −1 Mean (SD) Mean annual before (SD) T = +1 Mean (SD) T = +2 Mean (SD) T = +3 Mean (SD) Mean annual after (SD) Mean dif (SD) P value difference
GPs Primary care patients 98 (103) 104 (103) 102 (103) 129 (120) 125 (130) 127 (127) 127 (125) 25 (121) 0.15
  Secondary care patients 93 (90) 102 (97) 142 (119) 122 (110) 147 (165) 155 (158) 168 (181) 154 (166) 32 (146)  
  Primary care controls 67 (67) 74 (94) 72 (87) 68 (78) 68 (75) 75 (95) 70 (81) −2 (82) 0.13
  Secondary care controls 74 (88) 77 (99) 78 (98) 77 (97) 78 (96) 80 (95) 83 (96) 80 (2) 3 (96)  
Hospital specialistsa Primary care patients 1168 (2645) 1087 (2520) 1111 (2551) 1345 (2572) 1391 (2932) 1544 (2822) 1409 (2758) 298 (2719) <0.01×
  Secondary care patients 1139 (3780) 1063 (2763) 1500 (3713) 1303 (3450) 3695 (6400) 2678 (6198) 2815 (5783) 3173 (6230) 1870 (5269)  
  Primary care controls 591 (1812) 874 (2504) 792 (2325) 822 (2328) 1048 (2882) 1051 (2553) 955 (2585) 164 (2537) 0.16
  Secondary care controls 1259 (4742) 1319 ± 4806) 1342 (6006) 1322 (5457) 1294 (8598) 1333 (4987) 1441 (5071) 1337 (5149) 15 (5277)  
Medication Primary care patients 401 (657) 448 (680) 434 (672) 522 (792) 580 (911) 751 (2087) 598 (1269) 164 (1177) <0.01×
  Secondary care patients 477 (992) 545 (1143) 630 (1227) 579 (1169) 939 (1707) 999 (1797) 1163 (2087) 1005 (1822) 426 (1587)  
  Primary care controls 398 (783) 481 (1360) 457 (1220) 449 (1252) 471 (1231) 490 (1435 466 (1291) 10 (1278) 0.97
  Secondary care controls 525 (1398) 555 (1390) 558 (1452) 552 (1434) 561 (1597) 558 (1346) 561 (1304) 560 (1459) 8 (1445)  
Totala Primary care patients 1667 (2922) 1640 (2898) 1648 (2898) 1996 (2923) 2096 (3269) 2423 (3746) 2134 (3258) 486 (3192) <0.01×
  Secondary care patients 1708 (4080) 1710 (3204) 2272 (4145) 2003 (3863) 4781 (7058) 3832 (6951) 4146 (6670) 4331 (6958) 2328 (5888)  
  Primary care controls 1056 (2236) 1429 (3052) 1320 (2840) 1338 (2872) 1586 (3369) 1616 (3156) 1492 (3120) 171 (3068) 0.26
  Secondary care controls 1858 (5295) 1950 (5376) 1978 (6501) 1951 (6002) 1933 (5893) 1971 (5490) 2086 (5558) 1976 (5692) 26 (5812)  
  1. aExcluding psychiatric care; ×, significant difference at alpha = 0.05
  2. T = −3 indicates three years before diagnosis, T = +1 one year after diagnosis and so forth