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Table 4 Comparison of 770 Giardia exposed and 1105 controls stratified to IBS status, on perceived food intolerance according to food categories and FODMAP content 3 years after outbreak of a Giardia-epidemic in Bergen, Norway, 2004

From: Perceived food intolerance and irritable bowel syndrome in a population 3 years after a giardiasis-outbreak: a historical cohort study

  IBS N = 510 No-IBS N = 1365
  Exposed N = 355 Controls N = 155 Unadjusted Adjustedb Exposed N = 415 Controls N = 950 Unadjusted Adjustedb
Food categoriesa n % n % OR 95% CI OR 95 % CI n % n % OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI
Food Categories  
 Dairy products 96 27.0 38 24.5 1.14 0.74 to 1.76 1.18 0.76 to 1.84 64 15.4 90 9.5 1.74 1.24 to 2.46 1.78 1.26 to 2.53
 Spicy foods 69 19.4 26 16.8 1.20 0.73 to 1.97 1.24 0.75 to 2.04 48 11.6 109 11.5 1.01 0.70 to 1.45 1.04 0.72 to 1.49
 Fatty foods 31 8.7 8 5.2 1.76 0.79 to 3.92 1.79 0.80 to 4.02 16 3.9 18 1.9 2.08 1.05 to 4.11 2.19 1.10 to 4.34
 Vegetables 79 22.3 24 15.5 1.56 0.95 to 2.58 1.69 1.02 to 2.81 39 9.4 89 9.4 1.00 0.68 to 1.49 1.08 0.72 to 1.60
 Fruit 49 13.8 12 7.7 1.91 0.99 to 3.70 2.04 1.05 to 3.97 25 6.0 31 3.3 1.90 1.11 to 3.26 1.96 1.14 to 3.38
 Cereals 91 25.6 36 23.2 1.14 0.73 to 1.77 1.21 0.77 to 1.89 36 8.7 63 6.6 1.34 0.87 to 2.05 1.41 0.91 to 2.16
 Alcohol 43 12.1 8 5.2 2.53 1.16 to 5.52 2.57 1.18 to 5.61 22 5.3 34 3.6 1.51 0.87 to 2.61 1.55 0.89 to 2.69
 Coffee 23 6.5 12 7.7 0.83 0.40 to 1.70 0.84 0.40 to 1.73 16 3.9 40 4.2 0.91 0.51 to 1.65 0.92 0.51 to 1.66
 Soda 9 2.5 6 3.9 0.65 0.23 to 1.85 0.67 0.23 to 1.91 7 1.7 17 1.8 0.94 0.39 to 2.29 0.96 0.39 to 2.34
FODMAP Content c  
 High FODMAP 186 52.4 74 47.7 1.21 0.83 to 1.76 1.27 0.87 to 1.87 116 28.0 201 21.2 1.45 1.11 to 1.88 1.51 1.15 to 1.98
 Low FODMAP 145 40.8 57 36.8 1.19 0.81 to 1.75 1.22 0.83 to 1.80 83 20.0 171 18.0 1.14 0.85 to 1.53 1.17 0.88 to 1.58
FODMAP subtype  
 Oligosaccharides 131 36.9 51 32.9 1.19 0.80 to 1.78 1.29 0.86 to 1.94 58 14.0 135 14.2 0.98 0.70 to 1.37 1.04 0.74 to 1.46
 Lactose 93 26.2 39 25.2 1.06 0.69 to 1.63 1.09 0.70 to 1.69 60 14.5 88 9.3 1.66 1.17 to 2.35 1.69 1.19 to 2.41
 Polyols 51 14.4 13 8.4 1.83 0.97 to 3.48 1.91 1.01 to 3.65 25 6.0 31 3.3 1.90 1.11 to 3.26 1.95 1.14 to 3.36
 Fructose 45 12.7 14 9.0 1.46 0.78 to 2.75 1.49 0.79 to 2.81 24 5.8 25 2.6 2.27 1.28 to 4.03 2.31 1.30 to 4.11
  1. Abbreviations: FODMAP fermentable oligo-, di- and monosaccharides and polyols; IBS irritable bowel syndrome; CI confidence Interval; OR Odds ratio
  2. aThe question pertaining to these categories was: “If you react (to food), to what kind is that?”
  3. bAdjusted for gender and age
  4. cAssumed FODMAP content of the response(s) to the open-ended question about food