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Table 2 Summary of GE studies included in this systematic review

From: Systematic review of the impact of feed protein type and degree of hydrolysis on gastric emptying in children

Author and year Study design and sample Method Test feeds Results
Van den Driessche et al. [20] 1999 NRCT (n = 29) 13C-OABT Test feed 1: Breast milk Test feed 1: t1/2 47 min
Preterm infants (27–41 weeks) Test feed 2: 40 % casein, 60 % whey (Nutrilon Premium, Nutricia) Test feed 2: 65 min (p < 0.05)
Savage et al. [22] 2012 RCT cross-over (n = 13) on children with CP 13C-OABT Test feed 1: 82 % casein-based 82, 18 % whey (Paediasure, Abbott) Test feed 2 and 3: t1/2 33.9 min
Test feed 2: 50 % casein, 50 % whey [Nutren Junior, Nestle Clinical Nutrition] Test feed 1: 56.6 min (p = .033)
Age: 2.4–15.4 years
Test feed 3: 100 % pHFa whey [Peptament Junior, Nestle Clinical Nutrition]
Brun et al. [7] 2012 RCT cross-over (n = 15) children with CP 13C-OABT Test feed 1: 100 % casein Test feed 1: t1/2 153 min, Test feed 2: t1/2 82
Test feed 2: 100 % hydrolysed whey
Test feed 3: 100 % amino acids Test feed 3: 74.4 min
Age: 6–16 years Test feed 4: 40 % casein, 60 % whey Test feed 4: 63.3 min Fastest GE was for test feed 4 (p < 0.001)
Test feeds contained standard carbohydrate and fat
Brun et al. [30] 2013 RCT (n = 10) children with CP with a Nissen fundoplication versus (n = 10) children with CP but without Nissen fundoplica-tion 13C-OABT Test feed 1: 100 % casein t1/2 test feed 1:
Test feed 2: 40 % casein, 60 % whey - 110 min for Nissan fundoplication group
- 181 min for non Nissan fundoplication group
t1/2 test feed 2:
- 50 min for Nissan fundoplication group
- 85 min for non Nissan fundoplication group
In both groups feed 2 emptied faster
Staelens et al. [24] 2008 RCT cross-over (n = 20) healthy infants 13C-OABT Test feed 1: 29 % casein, 71 % whey (NAN 1, Nestle) Test feed 3: t1/2 46 min Test feed 1: t1/2 55 min
Test feed 2: 100 % pHFa whey (NAN HA, Nestle) (p =0.036)
Age: 6–13 weeks No difference between t1/2 between test feed 1 and feed 2
Test feed 3: 100 % eHFb whey formula (experimental Nestle formula)
Thorkelsson et al. [23] 1994 RCT (n = 20) preterm infants Age: 33–34 weeks Tc-99 scintigraphy Test feed 1: 40 % casein, 60 % whey (Similac Special Care, Ross Laboratories) Test feed 1: t1/2 64.9 ± 12.3 min
Test feed 2: t1/2 56.5 ± 14.8 min
Test feed 2: 82 % casein,18 % whey (experimental formula, Ross Laboratories) No significant difference in GE between formulas. (p = 0.75)
Tolia et al. [25] 1992 RCT cross-over (n = 28) infants with reflux Age: infants < 1 year of age Tc-99 scintigraphy Test feed 1: 82 % casein:18 % whey (Similac, Ross Laboratories) Test feed 1: t1/2 39.7 ± 2.02 min
Test feed 2: whole soya formula (Isomil, Ross Laboratories) Test feed 2: t 1/2 44.6 ± 2.01 min
Test feed 3: 100 % whey hydrolysate (Goodstart, Carnation Company) Test feed 3: t1/2 48.5 ± 2.89 min.
GE of feed 3 was significantly (p < 0.05) slower 48.5 % versus 39.7 %
Billeaud et al. [11] 1990 NRCT (n = 111) infants with GOR and (n = 90) healthy controls Tc99 scintigraphy Test feed 1: breast milk At 30 min no difference in GE between formulas.
Test feed 2: 100 % hydrolysed whey (Nidal HA, Nestle)
Gastric residual content at 120 min was 18 +/− 11 % with breast milk, 16 +/− 21 % feed 2, 25 +/− 17 % feed 3, 26 +/− 19 % feed 4, 39 +/− 17 % feed 5, 47 +/− 19 % feed 5, 55 +/− 19 % feed 7
Test feed 3: acidified whole protein (Pelargon, Nestle)
Age: <1 year of age (range not specified)   Test feed 4: 40 % casein, 60 % whey (Lactamil, Jaquemaire)
Test feed 5: 80 % casein, 20 % whey (Alma, Jaquemaire)
Test feed 6: 80 % casein, 20 % whey Follow-up formula (Nido, Nestle)
Test formula 7: whole cow’s milk (80 % casein)
  1. apHF = partially hydrolysed formula, b eHF = extensively hydrolysed formula