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Table 1 Systematic review inclusion and exclusion criteria for GE studies using formula/enteral feeds or breast milk

From: Systematic review of the impact of feed protein type and degree of hydrolysis on gastric emptying in children

Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria
Patient cohort Patient cohort
 All studies on preterm infants  Adult studies (>16 years)
 All studies on children (birth – 16 years)  Animal studies
Intervention Intervention
 Whole protein formula or feeds  Paediatric formula/feeds assessing impact of osmolality, carbohydrates and fat content on GE
 Partial or extensively hydrolysed casein formula or feeds
 Partial or extensively hydrolysed casein formula or feeds  Paediatric formula/feeds that are mixed at a non-standard concentration
 Mix of casein and whey protein, hydrolysed or whole formula or feeds  Paediatric formula/feeds that are pre-thickened
 Adult feeds
 Amino acids formula or feeds  Any feeds tested in animal models
Comparison Comparison
 Whole protein formulas versus breast milk  Adult feeds
 Whole protein versus hydrolysed (casein/whey) formula/feeds  Animal models
 Hydrolysed (casein/whey) versus amino acid formula/feeds
 Amino acid versus whole protein formula/feeds
Outcome measurements Outcome measurements
 Scintigraphy (Tc99 sulfur colloid scan)  Paracetamol absorption
 13C-OABT  13C-acetate BT
 13C-Na- OABT  Ultrasound
 Manometry