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Table 1 Common causes of secondary constipationᅟ

From: Chronic constipation in the elderly: a primer for the gastroenterologist

Drugs Anabolic steroids, analgesics, opioids (codeine), NSAIDs, anticholinergics, anticonvulsivants, antidepressants, antihistamines, antihypertensives (verapamil e clonidine), anti-Parkinsonian, diuretics, antiacids containing calcium or alluminium, cholestyramine.
Neuropathic and myopathic disorders Amyloidosis, Chagas disease, connective tissue disorders, CNS lesions, autonomic diabetic neuropathy, Hirschprung’s disease, multiple sclerosis.
Idiopathic Paraneoplastic syndromes, Parkinson’s disease, dementia, scleroderma, post-viral colon-paresis, intestinal pseudo-obstruction, spinal or ganglion tumor, ischemia.
Electrolytic balance alterations Hypokalemia, hypercalcemia
Organic intestinal diseases Obstruction/stenosis: adenoma, cancer, diverticolitis, rectocele, hernia, foreign bodies, faecal impaction, IBD and complications.
Anorectal abnormalities: anal stenosis or fissures, proctitis, rectocele, haemorrhoids.
Hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, pregnancy and childbirth, dehydration, low fibres intake diet, hyperglycemia
Endocrine-metabolic causes
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