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Table 3 Association between exposure to air pollutants and hospitalization with UGIB secondary to PUD among patients residing in Calgary (n = 1374) and Edmonton (n = 1149)

From: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to peptic ulcer disease is not associated with air pollution: a case-crossover study

Time interval O3 SO2 NO2 CO PM2.5 PM10
Discovery cohort (Calgary)
 0-day 1.14 (0.94–1.38) 0.92 (0.73–1.15) 0.94 (0.81–1.08) 0.95 (0.84–1.07) 0.92 (0.81–1.05) 1.01 (0.93–1.09)
 1-day lag 0.85 (0.70–1.02) 1.02 (0.81–1.29) 1.01 (0.88–1.17) 1.05 (0.93–1.19) 0.93 (0.81–1.06) 0.95 (0.87–1.04)
 3-day 0.95 (0.73–1.23) 0.88 (0.63–1.23) 0.92 (0.75–1.13) 0.96 (0.81–1.14) 0.85 (0.72–1.00) 0.94 (0.84–1.05)
 5-day 1.07 (0.78–1.47) 0.87 (0.59–1.28) 0.68 (0.53–0.88) 0.82 (0.67–1.01) 0.75 (0.61–0.90) 0.87 (0.75–1.00)
 7-day 1.06 (0.74–1.52) 0.90 (0.58–1.39) 0.67 (0.51–0.89) 0.85 (0.68–1.06) 0.78 (0.63–0.97) 0.88 (0.75–1.03)
Replication cohort (Edmonton)
 0-day 0.99 (0.79–1.24) 1.01 (0.85–1.20) 1.11 (0.90–1.36) 1.05 (0.90–1.22) 1.01 (0.90–1.14) 0.97 (0.84–1.13)
 1-day lag 0.94 (0.75–1.17) 0.97 (0.80–1.17) 1.05 (0.86–1.28) 1.02 (0.88–1.19) 0.98 (0.86–1.11) 0.87 (0.74–1.01)
 3-day 0.95 (0.72–1.27) 0.99 (0.76–1.29) 1.02 (0.79–1.33) 1.02 (0.83–1.24) 0.94 (0.80–1.10) 0.83 (0.68–1.00)
 5-day 1.06 (0.77–1.46) 0.91 (0.66–1.26) 0.88 (0.65–1.18) 0.94 (0.74–1.18) 0.88 (0.73–1.06) 0.79 (0.64–0.99)
 7-day 1.06 (0.75–1.50) 0.89 (0.61–1.29) 0.82 (0.58–1.15) 0.90 (0.69–1.17) 0.86 (0.70–1.06) 0.79 (0.61–1.01)
  1. aSO 2 sulfur dioxide, NO 2 nitrogen dioxide, CO carbon monoxide, O 3 ozone, PM 10 particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of ≤10 μm, PM 2.5 particulate matters with aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5 μm