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Table 5 Risk of bias assessment

From: Trans-anal irrigation therapy to treat adult chronic functional constipation: systematic review and meta-analysis

Risk of bias by type
Study Confounding Selection Measurement of interventions Performance Missing data Measurement of outcomes Reporting Overall
Chan [13] Moderate Low Low Low Moderate Moderate Low Moderate
Christensen [9] Moderate Moderate Moderate No information Low Serious Low Serious
Koch [14] Moderate Low Low Low Low Moderate Low Moderate
Cazemier [15] Serious Serious Serious Low Low Serious Low Serious
Gosselink [16] Low Serious Moderate Low Moderate Serious Low Serious
Gardiner [18] No information No information Moderate No information Low Serious No information Serious
Crawshaw [17] Moderate Serious Serious Low Serious Serious Low Serious