Skip to main content

Table 3 Study characteristics

From: Trans-anal irrigation therapy to treat adult chronic functional constipation: systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Design and methods Level of evidencea Definition of constipation Definition of successful treatment
Chan [13] Prospective cohort study III Infrequent passage of stool +/− straining/ digitation/ incomplete emptying i) → Improvement in Cleveland Constipation Score
     ii) → Patient-reported satisfaction
Christensen [9] Retrospective questionnaire survey and case note review III Idiopathic constipation including slow transit, obstructed defecation and ‘undetermined’ i) → Ongoing use
ii) → Resolved symptoms
iii) → Still using irrigation at time of death
Koch [14] Prospective cohort study III <2 bowel motions per week, straining or incomplete evacuation >50 % motions in previous year Resolution of incomplete emptying or straining symptoms
Cazemier [15] Retrospective case series questionnaire survey III Constipation according to Rome II criteria Patient-reported satisfaction
Gosselink [16] Retrospective case series, questionnaire survey III Obstructed defecation based on; straining, incomplete evacuation, digitation, fullness, <3 motions/ week Patient-reported satisfaction
Gardiner [18] Case series; not stated if prospective or retrospective III Obstructive defecation and slow transit (?which criteria used) Patient-reported satisfaction
Crawshaw [17] Retrospective case note review and questionnaire survey III The inability to evacuate the rectum when desired (includes obstructed defecation and dyssynergic defecation) 10 mm increase on VAS (10 % improvement)
  1. aEccles, Mason 2001 How to develop costconscious guidelines [25]