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Table 1 Patient characteristics and indication for endoscopy, by decade

From: Trends in upper gastrointestinal diagnosis over four decades in Lusaka, Zambia: a retrospective analysis of endoscopic findings

  1977–1985a 1987–1996 1997–2006 2007–2014  
n 1674 2627 3388 9264  
Male: female 998:569 1606–945 1771–1462 4445:3977 <0.0001
Female % 36 37 45 47  
Age (median, IQR) 33, 26–46 35, 27–45 35, 27–47 39, 29–54 0.001
Age groups in years:      
 Child (under 16) 13 (1) 31 (1) 66 (3) 311 (4)  
 16–44 888 (72) 1828 (74) 1697 (68) 4646 (57)  
 45–59 215 (17) 434 (17) 464 (19) 1697 (21)  
 60 and over 121 (10) 192 (8) 277 (11) 1453 (18) <0.0001
Indication:      
 Pain 1192 (71) 1957 (75) 1.912 (56) 4566 (49) <0.0001
 Dysphagia 64 (4) 99 (4) 222 (8) 961 (11) <0.0001
 Haematemesis 193 (12) 194 (8) 276 (22) 1062 (12) <0.0001
 Anaemia 30 (2) 63 (3) 14 (1) 187 (2) <0.0001
  1. Percentages are shown in brackets
  2. aNo data from 1986 retrieved, and the last decade is only 8 years so the decades are therefore not uniform