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Table 3 Comparison of serum zonulin with the postoperative infectious complications between probiotics and control the patients with normal intestinal barrier function (Intention-to-treat)

From: Positive regulatory effects of perioperative probiotic treatment on postoperative liver complications after colorectal liver metastases surgery: a double-center and double-blind randomized clinical trial

Outcomes Intention-to-treat
Control (n = 30) PRO (n = 30) P Value
Serum zonulin (ng/mg protein) 0.72 ± 0.26 0.51 ± 0.29 0.004
Septicemia (%)    
  Total 87 (26/30) 50 (15/30) 0.005
  HZ 95 (19/20) 66 (10/15) 0.064
  LZ 70 (7/10) 33 (5/15) 0.111
  HZ vs. LZ HZ vs LZ (83% vs 48%), P = 0.006
Correlation between septicemia and zonulin, r = 0.613, P < 0.001
Urinary infection (%)    
  Total 20 (6/30) 0 (0/30) 0.024
  HZ 15 (3/20) 0 (0/15) 0.244
  LZ 30 (3/10) 0 (0/15) 0.052
  HZ vs. LZ HZ vs LZ (9% vs 12%), P = 0.686
Diarrhea incidence (%)    
  Total 60 (18/30) 27 (8/30) 0.018
  HZ 50 (10/20) 27 (4/15) 0.296
  LZ 80 (8/10) 27 (4/15) 0.015
  HZ vs. LZ HZ vs LZ (40% vs 48%), P = 0.603
Duration of postoperative pyrexia (>38.5°C) (d)    
  Total 6.99 ± 2.38 5.49 ± 3.21 0.044
  HZ 7.97 ± 1.77 (n = 20) 8.02 ± 0.87 (n = 15) 0.927
  LZ 5.01 ± 2.27 (n = 10) 2.95 ± 2.61 (n = 15) 0.054
  HZ vs. LZ HZ vs LZ (7.99 ± 1.43 vs 3.78 ± 2.64), P < 0.001
Cumulative duration of antibiotic therapy (d)    
  Total 7.17 ± 1.60 6.13 ± 1.72 0.019
  HZ 7.90 ± 1.21 (n = 20) 7.47 ± 1.19 (n = 15) 0.298
  LZ 5.70 ± 1.25 (n = 10) 4.80 ± 0.94 (n = 15) 0.052
  HZ vs. LZ HZ vs LZ (7.71 ± 1.20 vs 5.16 ± 1.14), P < 0.001
Postoperative hospital stay    
  Total 12.87 ± 3.01 11.33 ± 2.22 0.029
  HZ 14.15 ± 2.64 (n = 20) 13.13 ± 1.60 (n = 15) 0.197
  LZ 10.30 ± 1.89 (n = 10) 9.53 ± 0.83 (n = 15) 0.177
  HZ vs. LZ HZ vs LZ (13.71 ± 2.28 vs 9.84 ± 1.38), P < 0.001
Hospital charge (Yuan) 60196.12 ± 6532.16 53628.22 ± 6513.28 <0.001
  1. HZ, high serum zonulin (≥0.6 ng/mg protein); LZ, low serum zonulin (<0.6 ng/mg protein); total = HZ + LZ; NS, No significance.
  2. Numerical data between groups were compared by the t-test and nominal data by Pearson χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test.
  3. HZ vs LZ compares these subgroups without regard to treatment.
  4. There was also a significant correlation between zonulin and duration of postoperative pyrexia (r = 0.919, p < 0.001), cumulative duration of antibiotic therapy and zonulin (r = 0.936, p < 0.001), and postoperative hospital stay (r = 0.911, p < 0.001).