ENPP1 gene expression and protein abundance in liver tissue of morbidly obese individuals at RYGB surgery. (A) ENPP1 mRNA expression presented as 2-∆Ct normalised to 18S. (B) ENPP1 protein abundance relative to Actin. Both ENPP1 mRNA and protein abundance was significantly lower in the T2DM group in comparison to the NGT group. (C) ENPP1 western blot from liver of 39 individuals who did not have a second liver biopsy. The remaining 13 samples were run on a different gel (Figure 3B) so as to facilitate easier comparison of ENPP1 protein before and after remission of diabetes and insulin resistance. The data from the two gels was combined for analysis of samples at RYGB. Black lines denote non-adjacent lanes. For uncropped blots see additional document 1. NGT; Normal glucose tolerance (n = 19), IGT; Impaired glucose tolerance (n = 9), T2DM; Type 2 diabetes (n = 27). Data is presented as mean + SE.