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Table 3 Association between early life environmental exposures and surgery in ulcerative colitis

From: Early life environment and natural history of inflammatory bowel diseases

Exposure Univariate odds ratio 95% confidence interval
Breastfeeding 1.51 0.63-3.61
Exposure to cigarette smoke 1.28 0.60-2.71
Pets during childhood 0.99 0.45-2.17
Daycare 1.96 0.92-4.18
Hospitalized before age 5 years 1.09 0.38-3.11
Delivery via caesarean section 0.63 0.18 – 2.22
  1. As none of the variables were significant on univariate analysis, we did not perform multivariate adjusted analyses.
  2. There was no IBD-related surgery among the 10 UC patients who reported growing up on a farm. Consequently, an odds ratio couldn’t be estimated.