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Table 2 Association between early life environmental exposures and surgery in Crohn’s disease

From: Early life environment and natural history of inflammatory bowel diseases

Exposure Univariate OR Multivariate +OR
(95% CI) (95% CI)
Breastfeeding 0.42 (0.25-0.68) 0.21 (0.09 – 0.46)
Exposure to cigarette smoke 1.82 (1.14-2.91) 2.17 (1.10 – 4.29)
Exposure to pets 0.93 (0.58-1.50)  
Growing up on farm 1.30 (0.37-4.59)  
Daycare exposure 0.79 (0.49-1.24)  
Delivery via caesarean section 1.02 (0.53 – 1.98)  
Hospitalization before age 5 1.24 (0.70 – 2.19)  
  1. +Adjusted for age, disease location (ileal, colon, ileocolon); phenotype (inflammatory, stricturing, penetrating), perianal involvement, duration of disease, and current smoking status (never, past, current).
  2. Only variables significant for univariate analysis were further explored for multivariate analysis. Multivariate analysis included 249 patients in Crohn’s disease with non-missing data for all variables.