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Table 3 Effects of astaxanthin on AOM-induced and BCAC formations in db/db mice

From: Inhibitory effects of astaxanthin on azoxymethane-induced colonic preneoplastic lesions in C57/BL/KsJ-db/dbmice

Group no. Treatment No. of mice Total no. of ACF/colon a Total no. of ACF/colonaCrypt multiplicity (Average no. of crypts/foci) a Total no. of large ACFs b/colon a Total no. of BCACs/cm2 a
1 None 10 0 0 0 0
2 Astaxanthin 10 0 0 0 0
3 AOM alone 10 11.9 ± 7.2 27.4 ± 12.5 1.4 ± 1.5 5.9 ± 2.6
4 AOM + astaxanthin 10 4.3 ± 2.7c 13.5 ± 5.7c 0.3 ± 0.6c 1.0 ± 1.0c
  1. aMean ± SD.
  2. b“Large ACFs” are ACFs with four or more aberrant crypts.
  3. c Significantly different from group 3 by Tukey-Kramer Multiple Comparison Test (P < 0.05).