Skip to main content

Table 2 Odds ratios for the risk of uncomplicated peptic ulcer disease associated with patient characteristics and comorbidities (nested case–control analysis)

From: Risk of uncomplicated peptic ulcer disease in a cohort of new users of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid for secondary prevention of cardiovascular events

  Controls N = 2000 n (%) Uncomplicated PUD cases N = 309 n (%) Adjusted OR (95% CI) a
Sex
  Male 1046 (52.3) 161 (52.1) NA
  Female 954 (47.7) 148 (47.9) NA
Age at index date, years
  50-59 250 (12.5) 43 (13.9) NA
  60-69 575 (28.7) 86 (27.8) NA
  70-79 859 (43.0) 129 (41.7) NA
  80-84 316 (15.8) 51 (16.5) NA
Follow-up time, months
  < 6 211 (10.5) 38 (12.3) NA
  6-12 227 (11.4) 33 (10.7) NA
  13-24 335 (16.8) 55 (17.8) NA
  25-48 538 (26.9) 80 (25.9) NA
  > 48 689 (34.5) 103 (33.3) NA
Visits to PCPb
  < 3 62 (3.1) 3 (1.0) 1 (-)
  4-9 544 (27.2) 47 (15.2) 1.35 (0.40-4.52)
  ≥ 10 1394 (69.7) 259 (83.8) 2.03 (0.61-6.76)
Referralsb
  0 466 (23.3) 37 (12.0) 1 (-)
  1-3 834 (41.7) 118 (38.2) 1.46 (0.97-2.20)
  ≥ 4 700 (35.0) 154 (49.8) 1.98 (1.30-3.00)
Hospitalizationsb
  0 1584 (79.2) 213 (68.9) 1 (-)
  ≥ 1 416 (20.8) 96 (31.1) 1.21 (0.90-1.63)
Smoking
  Non-smoker 800 (40.0) 105 (34.0) 1 (-)
  Smoker 267 (13.4) 67 (21.7) 1.96 (1.37-2.80)
  Ex-smoker 892 (44.6) 135 (43.7) 1.01 (0.76-1.34)
  Unknown 41 (2.1) 2 (0.6) 0.48 (0.11-2.08)
BMI, kg/m2
  11-19 67 (3.4) 15 (4.9) 1.11 (0.59-2.11)
  20-24 489 (24.4) 86 (27.8) 1 (-)
  25-29 781 (39.1) 114 (36.9) 0.81 (0.59-1.11)
  ≥ 30 510 (25.5) 80 (25.9) 0.83 (0.59-1.18)
  Unknown 153 (7.6) 14 (4.5) 0.69 (0.37-1.31)
Alcohol use, units per week
  0 88 (4.4) 19 (6.1) 1 (-)
  1-4 377 (18.9) 58 (18.8) 0.67 (0.37-1.21)
  5-15 395 (19.8) 56 (18.1) 0.64 (0.35-1.17)
  ≥ 16 148 (7.4) 22 (7.1) 0.65 (0.31-1.32)
  Unknown 992 (49.6) 154 (49.8) 0.66 (0.38-1.16)
Practice location
  Rural 235 (6.8) 7 (2.3) 1 (-)
  Urban 1382 (69.1) 233 (75.4) 3.21 (1.46-7.04)
  Town 240 (12.0) 28 (9.1) 2.38 (1.00-5.68)
  Unknown 243 (12.2) 41 (13.3) 2.75 (1.18-6.42)
Townsend deprivation index
  1 (least deprived) 489 (24.4) 59 (19.1) 1 (-)
  2 435 (21.8) 55 (17.8) 1.09 (0.73-1.63)
  3 411 (20.5) 68 (22.0) 1.29 (0.88-1.90)
  4 382 (19.1) 68 (22.0) 1.35 (0.91-1.99)
  5 (most deprived) 54 (17.5) 54 (17.5) 1.56 (1.01-2.39)
  Unknown 5 (1.6) 5 (1.6) 0.52 (0.20-1.37)
Comorbidities
  Cerebrovascular diseasec 629 (31.5) 91 (29.4) 0.89 (0.68-1.17)
  Ischaemic heart diseasec 1382 (69.1) 221 (71.5) 1.07 (0.81-1.41)
  Myocardial infarctionc 514 (25.7) 97 (31.4) 1.26 (0.96-1.66)
  Hypertensionc 1223 (61.2) 180 (58.3) 0.82 (0.63-1.06)
  Hyperlipidaemiac 697 (34.9) 114 (36.9) 1.08 (0.83-1.41)
  Diabetes mellitusc 328 (16.4) 60 (19.4) 1.08 (0.78-1.50)
  Goutc 176 (8.8) 22 (7.1) 0.70 (0.43-1.14)
  Rheumatoid arthritisc 55 (2.8) 20 (6.5) 1.46 (0.83-2.58)
  Osteoarthritisc 858 (42.9) 157 (50.8) 1.13 (0.87-1.46)
  COPDc 158 (7.9) 34 (11.0) 1.08 (0.71-1.65)
  Asthmac 324 (16.2) 54 (17.5) 0.82 (0.59-1.15)
  Anaemiac 177 (8.8) 70 (22.7) 2.53 (1.82-3.53)
  Stressc 158 (7.9) 42 (13.6) 1.58 (1.06-2.33)
  Anxietyc 351 (17.6) 70 (22.7) 1.21 (0.89-1.64)
  Depressionc 474 (23.7) 103 (33.3) 1.38 (1.04-1.83)
  IBSc 129 (6.5) 25 (8.1) 1.06 (0.66-1.71)
  GERDc 280 (14.0) 60 (19.4) 1.13 (0.81-1.57)
  Uncomplicated PUD symptomsd 471 (23.6) 133 (43.0) 2.09 (1.56-2.81)
  1. aOR adjusted for age, sex, follow-up time, health service utilization (PCP visits and referrals), smoking and drug use during the study period (gastroprotective drugs, NSAIDs, ASA and paracetamol).
  2. bIn year before the index date.
  3. cDiagnosed before the index date. Relative to being free from the comorbidity.
  4. dDiagnosed between the start date and the index date. Relative to being free from symptoms.
  5. Abbreviations: ASA-Acetylsalicylic acid; BMI-Body mass index; CI-Confidence interval; COPD-Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; GERD-Gastroesophageal reflux disease; IBS-Irritable bowel syndrome; NA-Not assessed; NSAIDs-Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; OR-Odds ratio; PCP-Primary care physician; PUD-Peptic ulcer disease.