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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the study patients

From: Frequency and risk factors for rebleeding events in patients with small bowel angioectasia

Characteristics Total Endoscopic treatment (+) Endoscopic treatment (-) P value*
Number 68 22 46  
Bleeding pattern (overt/occult) 40/28 19/3 21/25 0.002
Number of angioectasia, mean (median) 3.4 (2.5) 4.0 (2.0) 3.1 (3.0) 0.68
Age, year, mean ± SD 67.6 ± 12.8 66.9 ± 10.9 66.5 ± 13.6 0.30
Sex, Male/Female 38/30 11/11 27/19 0.60
Drinking history (%) 23 (33.8) 11 (50.0) 12 (26.0) 0.06
Smoking history (%) 24 (35.3) 7 (31.8) 17 (37.0) 0.79
Blood transfusion (%) 31 (45.6) 17 (77.3) 14 (30.4) 0.001
Minimum hemoglobin value, g/dl 9.3 ± 2.7 8.0 ± 2.0 9.9 ± 2.9 0.006
Follow-up duration, month, median (IQR) 30.5 (16.5-47.0) 34.0 (21.0-46.5) 30.0 (18.0-46.0) 0.76
Rebleeding rate, number (%) 23 (33.8) 5 (22.7) 18 (39.1) 0.27
Iron replacement therapy after OGIB, number (%) 59 (86.8) 20 (91.0) 39 (84.8) 0.71
Comorbidity, number (%)     
Hypertension 46 (67.6) 19 (86.4) 27 (58.7) 0.03
Diabetes 15 (22.1) 7 (31.8) 8 (17.4) 0.22
Cardiovascular disease 18 (26.5) 8 (36.4) 10 (21.7) 0.25
Cerebral infarction 9 (13.2) 3 (13.6) 6 (13.0) >0.99
CKD, ≥ stage 4 17 (86.4) 8 (36.4) 9 (19.6) 0.15
Liver cirrhosis 3 (4.4) 1 (4.5) 2 (4.3) >0.99
Medication used, number (%)     
Warfarin 9 (13.2) 4 (18.2) 5 (10.9) 0.46
LDA 27 (39.7) 10 (45.5) 17 (37.0) 0.60
Thienopyridine 9 (13.2) 3 (13.6) 6 (13.0) >0.99
NSAIDs 7 (10.3) 2 (9.1) 5 (10.9) >0.99
H2-blockers 17 (25.0) 5 (22.7) 12 (26.1) >0.99
PPIs 25 (36.8) 8 (36.4) 17 (37.0) >0.99
Rebamipide 10 (14.7) 4 (18.2) 6 (13.0) >0.99
  1. Abbreviations: IQR, interquartile range; CKD, chronic kidney disease; LDA, low-dose aspirin; NSAIDs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; H2-blockers, histamine H2 receptor antagonists; PPIs, proton pump inhibitors.
  2. Variable definitions: Alcohol history was defined as positive if the subject’s alcohol consumption exceeded 20 g/day. Smoking history was defined as positive if the subject had smoked more than 10-pack years and was still smoking or had quit within the previous 10 years. History of antiplatelet drug and/or NSAID use was defined as positive if the patient had been taking at least 1 pill per day of either of these drugs for more than 1 week within 1 month prior to the CE. History of anticoagulant drug use was defined as positive if the patient had been taking at least 1 pill of anticoagulant drug per day within one week prior to the CE.
  3. *Differences between endoscopic treatment (+) and (-) were calculated by Fisher's exact test or unpaired student t-test.