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Table 1 Comparison of Characteristics between ESCC cases and controls (P value: Mann-Whitney U test; *chi square test; **Fisher's exact test).

From: Macroscopic extent of gastric mucosal atrophy: increased risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Japan

  ESCC cases (N = 253) Controls (N = 253) p-value
Patients profiles    
Male/Female 225/28 225/28 >0.9999
Age (median; range) 65; 38–86 65; 38–86 >0.9999
BMI (median; range) 20.9; 14.8–30.8 22.8; 14.5–33.1 <0.0001
Current regular drinker 210 (83.0%) 142 (56.1%) <0.0001*
Current smoker Endoscopic findings 205 (81.0%) 133 (52.6%) <0.0001*
GMA Open-type 2, 3 164 (64.8%) 127 (50.2%) 0.0009*
Hiatal hernia 60 (23.7%) 74 (29.2%) 0.1584*
Erosive esophagitis    
Total (LA-A to D) 13 (5.1%) 64 (25.3%) <0.0001*
Mild (LA-A, B) 12 (4.7%) 59 (23.3%) <0.0001*
Severe (LA-C, D) 1 (0.4%) 5 (2.0%) 0.2160**
Barrett's epithelium 80 (31.6) 114 (45.1%) 0.0019*
  1. BMI = body mass index; GMA = gastric mucosal atrophy