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Table 3 RFA vs. PEI. Summary of complications described in individual studies

From: Meta-analysis of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation versus ethanol injection in hepatocellular carcinoma

Type RFA (number of cases) PEI (number of cases)
Severe pain 27 14
Fever 10 5
Haemothorax 4  
Pneumothorax 1  
Pleural effusion 7  
Gastric perforation 1  
Cholecystitis 1  
Intraperitoneal bleeding 2 1
Haemobilia 1  
Hepatic infarction 1  
Subcapsular haematoma 5 1
Transitory icterus 1  
Ascitis 1 2
Acute cholangitis   1
Hepatic abscess   1
Portal vein thrombosis 2 9
Biliary stricture 1  
Hypertransaminaemia 3 1
Thermal burn to colon 1  
Cutaneous burn 1 2
A-V shunt 3  
Neoplastic cell seeding 3 1
Psychotic reaction   1
Vagal reaction   1
Procedure-related death   1