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Table 2 Univariate analysis of factors influencing overall 21-day survival (n = 48).

From: Outcomes and factors influencing survival in cirrhotic cases with spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma: a multicenter study

50% Survival time: 21 days Patients who died within 21 days Patients who survived longer than 21 days p – value
Patients (n) 24 24  
Age 70.8 ± 8.2 67.8 ± 7.9 NS
Sex (n, %)    
   Male 19 (79%) 17 (71%) NS
   Female 5 (21%) 7 (29%)  
Etiology of LC (n, %)    
   HCV 16 (67%) 16 (67%)  
   HBV 3 (13%) 1 (4%) NS
   Alcohol 3 (13%) 2 (7%)  
   NonB-nonC 2 (7%) 5 (22%)  
Past history of HCC treatment (n, %)    
   presence 19 (79%) 17 (71%) NS
   absence 5 (21%) 7 (29%)  
Admission duration for the treatment of HCC 3.4 ± 3.0 2.6 ± 2.7 NS
Months from first treatment of HCC 31.6 ± 28.0 30.5 ± 37.4 NS
Shock (n, %)    
   presence 15 (62%) 7 (29%) p = 0.0205
   absence 9 (38%) 17 (71%)  
Albumin (g/dL) 3.0 ± 0.4 3.4 ± 0.4 p = 0.0008
Total bilirubin (mg/dL) 2.2 ± 1.0 1.5 ± 0.6 p = 0.0052
PT (INR) 1.24 ± 0.12 1.27 ± 0.15 NS
ICG at 15 min 35.6 ± 12.1 30.6 ± 14.0 NS
AFP (ng/mL) 92400 25926 NS
PIVKA-II (mAU/mL) 35513 43666 NS
Ascites (n, %)    
   presence 12 (50%) 13 (54%) NS
   absence 12 (50%) 11 (46%)  
Hepatic encephalopathy (n, %)    
   presence 16 (67%) 9 (38%) p = 0.0431
   absence 8 (33%) 15 (62%)  
AST (IU/L) 127 ± 86 76 ± 45 p = 0.0142
ALT (IU/L) 61 ± 42 44 ± 23 NS
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 11.1 ± 2.1 11.8 ± 1.7 NS
Platelet count (× 104) 12.9 ± 5.5 16.9 ± 9.2 NS
Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.99 ± 0.40 1.06 ± 0.85 NS
Child-Pugh classification (n, %)    
   A 2 (8%) 10 (42%)  
   B 10 (42%) 8 (33%) p = 0.0229
   C 12 (50%) 6 (25%)  
Child-Pugh score 9.2 ± 1.8 7.6 ± 2.0 p = 0.0074
Number of tumors (n, %)    
   single 1 (4%) 5 (21%) NS
   multiple 23 (96%) 19 (79%)  
Maximum tumor size (cm) 7.2 ± 3.5 7.7 ± 3.5 NS
Maximum tumor size (n, %)    
   ≤ 7 cm 13 (54%) 9 (38%) NS
   > 7 cm 11 (46%) 15 (62%)  
Portal vein tumor thrombosis    
   presence 12 (50%) 12 (50%) NS
   absence 12 (50%) 12 (50%)  
Clinical stage    
   II 0 (0%) 1 (4%)  
   III 11 (46%) 11 (46%) NS
   IVA 8 (33%) 7 (29%)  
   IVB 5 (21%) 5 (21%)  
Performing TAE    
   Performed 1 (4%) 15 (62%) p < 0.0001
   Not performed 23 (96%) 9 (38%)  
  1. Abbreviations: LC, liver cirrhosis: HCV, hepatitis C virus: HBV, hepatitis B virus: HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma: PT (INR), prothrombin time (international ratio): ICG, indocyanine green: AFP, alpha-fetoprotein: PIVKA-II, protein induced vitamin K absence-II: AST, aspartate aminotransferase: ALT, alanine aminotransferase: TAE, transcatheter arterial embolization: NS, not significant.