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Table 1 Comparison of patient characteristics between ConT and TAE groups

From: Outcomes and factors influencing survival in cirrhotic cases with spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma: a multicenter study

  Total ConT group TAE group p – value
Patients (n) 48 32 16  
Age 69.3 ± 8.1 70.2 ± 8.7 67.5 ± 6.6 NS
Sex (n, %)     
   Male 36 (75%) 22 (69%) 14 (87%) NS
   Female 12 (25%) 10 (31%) 2 (13%)  
Etiology of LC (n, %)     
   HCV 32 (67%) 21 (65%) 11 (69%)  
   HBV 4 (8%) 3 (9%) 1 (6%) NS
   Alcohol 5 (10%) 4 (13%) 1 (6%)  
   NonB-nonC 7 (15%) 4 (13%) 3 (19%)  
Past history of HCC treatment (n, %)     
   presence 36 (75%) 24 (75%) 12 (75%) NS
   absence 12 (25%) 8 (25%) 4 (25%)  
Admission duration for the treatment of HCC 3.0 ± 2.8 3.2 ± 2.9 2.6 ± 2.7 NS
Months from first treatment of HCC 31.0 ± 32.7 35.2 ± 36.4 22.8 ± 22.3 NS
Shock (n, %)     
   presence 22 (48%) 16 (50%) 6 (38%) NS
   absence 26 (52%) 16 (50%) 10 (62%)  
Albumin (g/dL) 3.2 ± 0.4 3.1 ± 0.5 3.3 ± 0.3 NS
Total bilirubin (mg/dL) 1.8 ± 0.9 1.9 ± 0.9 1.5 ± 0.7 NS
PT (INR) 1.25 ± 0.13 1.24 ± 0.12 1.29 ± 0.16 NS
ICG at 15 min 33.1 ± 13.2 32.9 ± 12.9 33.5 ± 14.2 NS
AFP (ng/mL) 59163 84009 9472 NS
PIVKA-II (mAU/mL) 39589 55199 8370 NS
Ascites (n, %)     
   presence 32 (67%) 23 (72%) 9 (56%) NS
   absence 16 (33%) 9 (28%) 7 (44%)  
Hepatic encephalopathy (n, %)     
   presence 25 (52%) 17 (53%) 8 (50%) NS
   absence 23 (48%) 15 (47%) 8 (50%)  
AST (IU/L) 91 ± 73 94 ± 79 76 ± 51 NS
ALT (IU/L) 53 ± 35 52 ± 35 53 ± 35 NS
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 11.5 ± 1.9 11.1 ± 1.9 12.2 ± 1.8 NS
Platelet count (× 104) 14.9 ± 7.8 14.1 ± 6.0 16.6 ± 10.5 NS
Creatinine (mg/dL) 1.03 ± 0.66 1.08 ± 0.75 0.92 ± 0.42 NS
Child-Pugh classification (n, %)     
   A 12 (24%) 7 (22%) 5 (31%)  
   B 18 (38%) 11 (34%) 7 (44%) NS
   C 18 (38%) 14 (44%) 4 (25%)  
Child-Pugh score 8.0 ± 2.1 8.2 ± 2.1 7.8 ± 1.9 NS
Number of tumors (n, %)     
   single 6 (13%) 2 (6%) 4 (25%) NS
   multiple 42 (87%) 30 (94%) 12 (75%)  
Maximum tumor size (cm) 7.0 ± 2.0 7.1 ± 3.9 6.9 ± 2.8 NS
Maximum tumor size (n, %)     
   ≤ 7 cm 23 (48%) 15 (47%) 8 (50%) NS
   > 7 cm 25 (52%) 17 (53%) 8 (50%)  
Portal vein tumor thrombosis     
   presence 24 (50%) 16 (50%) 8 (50%) NS
   absence 24 (50%) 16 (50%) 8 (50%)  
Clinical stage     
   II 1 (4%) 0 (0%) 1 (6%)  
   III 22 (44%) 12 (38%) 10 (63%) NS
   IVA 15 (31%) 11 (34%) 4 (25%)  
   IVB 10 (21%) 9 (28%) 1 (6%)  
  1. Abbreviations: ConT, conservative treatment: TAE, transcatheter arterial embolization: LC, liver cirrhosis: HCV, hepatitis C virus: HBV, hepatitis B virus: HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma: PT (INR), prothrombin time (international ratio): ICG, indocyanine green: AFP, alpha-fetoprotein: PIVKA-II, protein induced vitamin K absence-II: AST, aspartate aminotransferase: ALT, alanine aminotransferase: NS, not significant.