Overview of patient chart review. 95% of all individuals with VA had a clinical diagnosis of CD according to the patient charts (95% CI = 91–99%). This is consistent with data from an earlier Swedish study showing that out of 524 children with a positive first biopsy, 509 improved in their mucosa when starting on a gluten-free diet (corresponds to 97.1%). *Other sources: In two patients, we phoned the responsible physician and the diagnosis of CD could then be confirmed. In a third patient, no patient chart could be obtained. However, through the local chemistry laboratory, we obtained data on CD serology that showed positive endomysium and antigliadin antibodies prior to biopsy, and negative endomysium and antigliadin antibodies after biopsy. Also this patient was regarded as having CD.