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Table 3 Summary of the results of the review

From: Symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease in severely mentally retarded people: a systematic review

  Difference between GERD and non GERD group Sensitivity
  Number of studies Relation1 Level of evidence2 Number of studies Range median
GERD symptoms       
Vomiting 5 yes A 8 22–100 57
Rumination 3 yes A 3 31–40 32
Regurgitation 4 no A 5 29–46 32
Food refusal 3 no A 4 29–49 38
Hematemesis 6 yes A 8 4–41 17
Iron deficiency anemia 3 no A 4 11–35 17
(Recurrent) pneumonia 3 no A 4 16–52 25
COPD, bronchitis, asthma) 1 no C 3 11–36 33
Respiratory symptoms 1 no C 1 - 44
Stridor 1 no C 1 - 24
Wheezing 1 Yes C 1 - 43
Failure to thrive 3 +/-1 B 5 7–92 40
Adiposity 1 No B 1 - 18
Dental erosion 2 Yes A 2 59–75 67
Behavioral symptoms       
Behavior problems 2 no A 2 47–48 48
Automutilation 2 no A 3 19–29 23
Aggression 2 no A 2 19–23 21
Fear 1 no A 1 - 11
Episodes of screaming 2 no A 2 23–24 24
Depression 1 yes A 1 - 17
Restlessness 2 no A 2 19–23 21
Pain/irritability 2 +/- C 3 34–52 44
Heartburn 1 no C 2 9–12 11
Changed behavior 1 yes B 1 - 70
Predisposing factors       
Nonambulance 4 no A 4 44–58 52
Scoliosis 4 no A 4 31–50 49
Cerebral Palsy 5 yes A 5 46–70 61
Use of anticonvulsive therapy 4 yes A 4 46–72 63
Central Nervous System Disease 1 yes A 1 - 45
IQ < 35 3 yes A 3 80–88 82
Other factors       
Sex (males) 3 no A 3 56–60 58
Down's syndrome 2 no A 2 11–13 12
Constipation 4 no A 4 46–65 60
Melena 1 no C 1 - 4
Nasogastric feeding 2 no A 2 4–7 6
Gastrostomy feeding 2 +/- A 2 11–16 14
  1. 1 Statistically significant relation between a characteristic and GERD. +/- indicates that results are contradictory.
  2. 2 Level A highest level of evidence, level B = intermediate level of evidence, C = lowest level of evidence.