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Table 3 Frequencies and OR (odds ratio) and 95%CI (confidence interval) for betel quid chewing and infection with HBV/or HCV stratified by different severity levels of abnormal alanine transaminase (ALT) estimated from multiple logistic regression model after adjustments for alcohol and cigarette consumptions, age, ethnicity, BMI (body mass index) and gender

From: Prevalence and determinants of biochemical dysfunction of the liver in Atayal Aboriginal community of Taiwan: Is betel nut chewing a risk factor?

Levels of ALT elevation   ≤37 [1 ×] OR (95%CI) >37–≤111 [1–3 ×] OR (95%CI) >111–≤185 [3–5 ×] OR (95%CI) >185 [>5 ×] OR (95%CI)
Betel Quid Chewing HBV/or HCV No. of subjects   No. of subjects   No. of subjects   No. of subjects  
   No - 1005 1.0 135 0.9 (0.6–1.2) 40 0.5 (0.3–0.8) 23 0.3 (0.1–0.8)
  + 318 1.3 (1.2–1.5) 18 1.6 (1.2–1.9) 21 1.8 (1.3–2.3) 24 2.3 (2.1–2.7)
   Yes - 935 1.1 (0.8–1.5) 31 1.3 (1.1–1.3) 23 1.5 (1.2–1.9) 28 1.7 (1.4–2.1)
  + 256 1.5 (1.2–1.8) 36 2.3 (1.9–2.6) 52 3.1 (2.5–3.6) 65 4.2 (3.5–4.7)
  1. HBV: HBsAg(+)
  2. HCV: hepatitis C virus infection
  3. +: positive
  4. -: negative
  5. OR(95%): odds ratio(95%CI)
  6. 1 ×: upper normal limit
  7. 1–3 ×: one to three times of upper normal limit
  8. 5 ×: five times of upper normal limit