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Table 1 Different therapeutic approaches to DEV.

From: Therapeutic approach to "downhill" esophageal varices bleeding due to superior vena cava syndrome in Behcet's disease: a case report

Category (reference) Etiology and/or Indication Major Manifestation Therapeutic Approach Results of Treatment Possible Complications of Treatment
1 [10; 11; 15] Intrathoracic goiter Bleeding Thyroidectomy Usually complete response Complications of surgeries
2 [1] Tumor Bleeding Chemoradiotherapy Partial response Chemoradiotherapy side effects
3 [13] Tumor Bleeding Surgical Resection Usually complete response Complications of surgeries
4 [21] Systemic vasculitis Bleeding Steroids and dapsone Complete response Medications side effects
5 [29] Unspecified disease Bleeding Sclerotherapy Partial or no response Bleeding, fatal pulmonary embolism
6 [current report] Behcet's disease Bleeding Band ligation Complete response Endoscopic band ligation complications