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Table 1 Characteristics of included or non-included patients

From: Diagnostic value of biochemical markers (NashTest) for the prediction of non alcoholo steato hepatitis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

  Training Group Validation Group Significance p training vs validation included
Characteristic Included N = 160 Non-included N = 78 Significance p Included N = 97 Non-included N = 69 Significance p  
Demographics mean (se)or n (%)        
   Age at biopsy, years 52.9 (0.89) 54.2 (1.37) 0.34 48.5 (1.3) 49.1 (1.5) 0.72 0.01
   Male 96 (60) 47 (60) 0.36 57 (59) 38 (69) 0.64 0.84
   Height, meter 1.68 (0.01) 1.66 (0.01) 0.20 1.69 (0.01) 1.67 (0.01) 0.27 0.81
   Weight, kg 83.6 (1.2) 76.3 (2.6) 0.01 77.4 (1.5) 74.0 (1.9) 0.04 0.002
   Body Mass Index, kg/m2 29.6 (0.4) 27.6 (0.9) 0.03 27.1 (0.5) 26.4 (0.6) 0.11 < 0.0001
Metabolic factor (%)        
   Diabetes 65/160 (41) 12/78 (15) < 0.0001 31/97 (32) 15/69 (22) 0.62 0.0002
   Arterial Hypertension 53/160 (33) 6/23 (26)   15/97 (16) 16/69 (23) 0.21 0.002
   Body Mass Index greater than 27 kg/m2 101/160 (63) 16/34 (47)   43/97 (44) 22/69 (32) 0.11 0.003
   Triglycerides greater than 1.5 70/160 (44) 20/54 (37)   34/97 (35) 15/69 (22) 0.06 0.17
   HDL cholesterol lower than 40 mg/L 36/151 (24) 6/38 (16)   15/94 (16) 15/66 (23) 0.28 0.14
Metabolic factor        
   None 1/160 (1) 22/78 (28)   2/97 (2) 0/69 0.23 0.30
   At least one 159/160 (99) 56/78 (72)   95/97 (98) 69/69   
Alcohol consumption, n (%)        
   No 114/160 (71) 61/78 (78) 0.25 57/97 (59) 41/69 (59)   
   Yes 46/160 (29) 17/78 (22)   40/97 (41) 28/69 (41) 0.63 0.04
Fibrosis stage, n (%)        
Non advanced fibrosis 121/160 (76) 71/75 (95) 0.0001 66/97(68) 51/69(74) 0.48 0.12
   No fibrosis 69/160 (41) 50/75 (67)   25/97 (27) 21/69 (30)   
   Fibrosis perisinusoidal or periportal 52/160 (33) 21/75 (28)   41/97 (41) 30/69 (43)   
A: mild, zone 3, perisinusoidal 29/160 (18) 19/75 (25)   16/97 (19) 18/69 (25)   
B: moderate, zone 3, perisinusoidal 1/160 (1) 2/75 (3)   15/97 (15) 0/69 (0)   
C: portal/periportal 22/160 (14) 0/75 (0)   10/97 (22) 12/69 (18)   
Advanced Fibrosis 39/160 (24) 4/75 (3)   31/97 (32) 18/69(26)   
   Perisinusoidal and portal/periportal 20/160 (13) 1/75(1)   15/97 (15) 13/69 (19)   
   Bridging 10/160 (6) 1/75 (1)   12/97 (12) 2/69 (3)   
   Cirrhosis 9/160 (6) 2/75 (3)   4/97 (4) 3/69 (4)   
Non alcoholo-steato-hepatitis (Nash), n (%)        
   No 57/160 (36) 39/75 (52) 0.0001 41/97 (42) NA NA 0.04
   Borderline 75/160 (47) 27/75 (36)   21/97 (22) NA   
   Yes 28/160 (17) 9/75 (12)   35/97 (36) NA   
Steatosis        
   < 5% 10/160 (6) 24/75 (32)* 0.0001 19/97 (20)** 13/69 (19) 0.38 < 0.0001
   5–32 56/160 (35) 16/75 (21)   22/97 (23) 27/69 (39)   
   33–65 46/160 (29) 16/75 (21)   27/97 (28) 10/69 (14)   
   66–100 48/160 (30) 19/75 (25)   29/97 (30) 19/60 (28)   
Interval between biopsy and serum, median (95%CI), Range days 0[0; 1] -87;+89 0[-4; 1] -538; +540 < 0.0001 0[0; 0] -24;+49 0[0; 0] -42; +40 0.90 0.07
Biopsy quality mean (se)        
   Sample size 20.1 (0.5) 19.3 (0.8) 0.33 17.7 (0.7) 21.4 (0.9) 0.001 0.002
   Number of fragment 2.2 (0.2) 2.4 (0.2) 0.88 2.3 (0.2) 2.2 (0.2) 0.79 0.61
   Number of portal tracts 16.4 (0.6) 15.5 (0.9) 0.28 13.6 (0.6) 17.1 (1.0) 0.008 0.01
Serum biochemical markers, mean (se)        
   α2-macroglobulin (g/L) 1.70 (0.05) 1.70 (0.10) 0.74 1.72 (0.06) 1.76 (0.08) 0.47 0.50
   ALT (IU) 72 (3) 63 (5) 0.10 79 (5) 84 (10) 0.69 0.35
   AST (IU) 50 (3) 44 (3) 0.10 45 (3) 52 (5) 0.05 0.006
   Apolipoprotein A1(g/L) 1.47 (0.02) 1.45 (0.06) 0.98 1.59 (0.07) 1.53 (0.04) 0.80 0.06
   GGT (IU/L) 111 (12) 108 (15) 0.83 132 (12) 158 (19) 0.16 0.04
   Haptoglobin (g/L) 1.09 (0.04) 1.18 (0.11) 0.41 1.12 (0.10) 1.02 (0.05) 0.70 0.39
   Total bilirubin (μmol/L) 11.4 (0.5) 22.1 (9.5) 0.35 12.6 (0.6) 13.6 (1.0) 0.89 0.02
   Glucose (mmol/L) 6.1 (0.2) 5.3 (0.2) 0.08 6.1 (0.2) 5.8 (0.3) 0.008 0.46
   Cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.5 (0.1) 5.5 (0.2) 0.87 5.4 (0.1) 5.5 (0.1) 0.57 0.84
   Triglycerides (mmol/L) 2.0 (0.1) 1.6 (0.1) 0.31 1.4 (0.1) 1.3 (0.1) 0.03 0.04
   FibroTest (0.00–1.00) 0.30 (0.02) 0.35 (0.05) 0.59 0.29 (0.02) 0.33 (0.02) 0.21 0.99
   SteatoTest (0.00–1.00) 0.70 (0.01) 0.56 (0.05) 0.007 0.61 (0.03) 0.60 (0.03) 0.54 0.02
  1. NA=Not applicable as patients excluded have other associated diseases
  2. * = among the 24 patients excluded 20 had no steatosis and 4 had steatosis < 5%