SEB was detected in the sinuses and in the stools of CRS-FA patients. Bars represent SEB levels in the sinus (or nasal) wash fluids (A) or in the stools (B) that were detected with ELISA. Data are expressed as mean ± SD. *, p < 0.05, compared with values of the 1st tests (before the sinus surgery; 2nd: 2 months after the sinus surgery). #, p < 0.05, compared with healthy controls. $, p < 0.05, compared with CRS patients. C, S. aureus was identified with the surgical sinus samples after bacterial culture. D, S. aureus DNA was identified with PCR. Band 1 is the negative control; bands 2 and 3 are the representative bands of samples from patients with CRS-FA.