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Table 3 Multivariate logistic regression model of risk factors associated with hepatitis B virus infection in asymptomatic volunteer blood donors in a case-control study, Karachi, Pakistan.

From: Epidemiologic study of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in male volunteer blood donors in Karachi, Pakistan

  Adjusted odds ratio 95 % confidence interval
History of dental treatment   
   Never had dental treatment 1.0 -
   Treated by dentist 1.6 0.7 – 3.6
   Treated by un-qualified provider 9.8 2.1 – 46.1
Number of therapeutic injection received in last five years   
   0 1.0 -
   1–5 3.3 1.1 – 9.6
   > 5 4.2 1.4 – 12.7
Type of syringe used for the last injection   
   Never had injection 1.0 -
   Plastic 1.8 0.5 – 6.4
   Glass 9.4 2.6 – 34.3
Injury resulted in bleeding during facial shaving from barber   
   No 1.0 -
   Yes 2.3 1.1 – 4.8