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Table 2 Nutritional status and growth of children with coeliac disease (CD), type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and dual diagnosis (T1DM + CD)

From: Nutritional status, growth and disease management in children with single and dual diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus and coeliac disease

Mean ± SD* Condition CDx-2 yrs CDx-1 yrs CDx CDx + 1 yr CDx + 2 yrs
BMI z-score, (SD) T1DM + CD 0.14 ± 0.952 0.14 ± 0.90 −0.03 ± 1.01 −0.04 ± 0.99 0.07 ± 1.02
CD n/a n/a 0.09 ± 1.09 0.13 ± 1.23 0.27 ± 1.18
T1DM 0.49 ± 1.02 0.26 ± 0.95 0.39 ± 0.92 0.37 ± 0.9 0.27 ± 0.92
BMI classification, Th/N/Ob (n) T1DM + CD 0/23/0 0/23/0 1/21/0 1/22/0 1/17/0
CD n/a n/a 1/21/1 0/21/1 1/13/3
T1DM 0/40/3 0/43/1 0/43/1 0/41/1 0/38/1
Height z-score, (SD) T1DM + CD −0.44 ± 1.38 −0.36 ± 1.26 −0.26 ± 1.21 −0.32 ± 1.10 −0.38 ± 1.61
CD n/a n/a −0.72 ± 0.971 −0.63 ± 1.191 −0.32 ± 0.761
T1DM −0.11 ± 0.78 0.03 ± 0.72 0.05 ± 0.77 −0.05 ± 0.72 0.07 ± 0.69
Height classification Short/Normal (n) T1DM + CD 2/21 2/20 2/21 2/21 3/15
CD n/a n/a 3/20 1/21 0/16
T1DM 0/43 0/44 0/44 0/44 0/39
Weight z-score, (SD) T1DM + CD −0.21 ± 1.30 −0.12 ± 1.26 −0.19 ± 1.26 −0.2 ± 1.04 −0.15 ± 1.48
CD n/a n/a −0.31 + 0.83 −0.22 ± 0.89 0.06 ± 1.02
T1DM 0.33 ± 0.85 0.26 ± 0.831 0.36 ± 0.851 0.30 + 0.851 0.29 ± 0.811
  1. Coeliac Disease (CD), Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM), CDx: Coeliac Disease diagnosis; CDx + 1: One year post Coeliac Disease diagnosis; CDx + 2: Two years post Coeliac Disease diagnosis; CDx-1: One year prior Coeliac Disease diagnosis; CDx-2y: Two years prior Coeliac Disease diagnosis; HbA1c: Glycated haemoglobin A1c; tTG: Tissue Transglutaminase; BMI: Body mass index; Th/N/Ob: number of thin/normal BMI/obese participants; 1p < 0.05 to UK 1990 reference data; 2p < 0.001 between CDx and each time points; *unless otherwise is specified; n/a: data for CD were not available prior to disease diagnosis.