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Table 3 Risk of coeliac disease in offspring (follow-up from one year of age) according to antibiotic exposure in pregnancy

From: Antibiotic exposure in pregnancy and risk of coeliac disease in offspring: a cohort study

  Antibiotics (%) No Antibiotics (%) Crude HR; 95% CI Adjusted HR; 95% CIA Adjusted HR; 95% CIB
All 11/1835 (0.6) 29/6888 (0.4) 1.43; 0.71-2.86 1.42; 0.71-2.83 1.37; 0.68-2.76
Sex      
Boys 4/932 (0.4) 8/3547 (0.2) 1.90; 0.57-6.32 1.91; 0.58-6.35 2.00; 0.60-6.66
Girls 7/903 (0.8) 21/3341 (0.6) 1.24; 0.53-2.91 1.24; 0.53-2.92 1.13; 0.48-2.67
Subgroups      
No heredityC 8/1752 (0.5) 24/6656 (0.4) 1.27; 0.57-2.82 1.26; 0.57-2.81 1.21;0.54-2.70
Term deliveriesD 11/1738 (0.6) 27/6526 (0.4) 1.53; 0.76-3.09 1.52; 0.76-3.07 1.48; 0.73-2.99
Vaginal delivery 9/1583 (0.6) 25/6058 (0.4) 1.38; 0.64-2.96 1.37; 0.64-2.94 1.34; 0.62-2.88
  1. AIn Model A we adjusted for duration of breastfeeding and age at gluten introduction. Children with complete data on breastfeeding and gluten introduction were included in the analyses (n varied between 7641 and 8723).
  2. BIn Model B we adjusted for any parent-reported infection during the child’s first year of life, education level as well as duration of breastfeeding and age at gluten introduction. Children with complete data on breastfeeding, gluten introduction as well as education level were included in the analyses (n varied between 7616 and 8692).
  3. CExcluding individuals with a first-degree relative with celiac disease (n = 105), type 1 diabetes mellitus (n = 202) or both celiac disease and type 1 diabetes (n = 9).
  4. DFull-term, ≥37 gestational weeks.
  5. Hazard ratios (HR) estimated through Cox regression. Follow-up from one year of age.