Diagnostic/therapeutic flow-chart. Every patients underwent to HBV status assessment prior to start chemotherapy. HBsAg positive patients underwent to NUCs pre-emptive therapy. Monitoring of ALT continued monthly for every patient during treatment and at least 16 months after treatment interruption. If there were an ALT elevation, HBV-DNA and HBsAg assays were performed to diagnose probable OBI reactivation. At the diagnosis of probable OBI reactivation a “rescue therapy” with lamivudine was promptly started. In patients who reactivated, ALT every two weeks and a monthly complete liver functionality test plus HBV-DNA assay were performed. In patients who reactivated, Lamivudine was continued until the complete HBV remission (see diagnostic criteria in the Methods section).