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Table 4 Univariate and multivariate analyses of risk factors associated with early post-operative bleeding

From: Risk factors for early and delayed post-operative bleeding after endoscopic submucosal dissection of gastric neoplasms, including patients with continued use of antithrombotic agents

  Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Risk factor OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
Male gender (vs. Female) 4.25 (0.53-33.61) 0.17   
Age ≥70 years (vs. ≤69 years) 1.45 (0.38-5.57) 0.58   
Tumor location Lower (vs. Upper and Middle) 2.36 (0.68-8.20) 0.17   
Continued use of LDA 3.66 (0.74-17.93) 0.11   
Continued use of LDA + heparin replacement 13.30 (1.27-139.25) 0.03* 32.88 (2.61-414.05) <0.01*
Heparin replacement 3.50 (0.71-17.10) 0.12   
Cessation of antithrombotic agent during ESD procedure (vs. No antithrombotic therapy) 3.08 (0.60-15.87) 0.18   
Liver cirrhosis 1.33 (0.16-10.81) 0.78   
CKD undergoing hemodialysis 4.92 (0.56-43.20) 0.15   
Specimen size ≥40 mm (vs. < 40 mm) 6.08 (1.74-21.27) <0.01* 8.03 (2.03-31.72) <0.01*
Procedure time ≥90 min (vs. < 90 min) 3.44 (0.81-14.71) 0.10   
Second-look endoscopy (vs. No second-look endoscopy) 1.96 (0.24-15.60) 0.52   
  1. OR: Odds ratio.
  2. CI: Confidence interval.
  3. LDA: Low-dose aspirin.
  4. CKD: Chronic kidney disease.
  5. *p<0.05.