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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate analyses of risk factors associated with overall post-operative bleeding

From: Risk factors for early and delayed post-operative bleeding after endoscopic submucosal dissection of gastric neoplasms, including patients with continued use of antithrombotic agents

  Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Risk factor OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
Male gender (vs. Female) 3.91 (0.89-17.11) 0.07* 6.40 (0.69-58.69) 0.10
Age ≥70 years (vs. ≤69 years) 1.01 (0.39-2.58) 0.99   
Tumor location Lower (vs. Upper and Middle) 1.65 (0.67-4.08) 0.27   
Continued use of LDA 2.97 (0.81-10.92) 0.10   
Continued use of LDA + heparin replacement 6.84 (0.68-68.89) 0.10   
Heparin replacement 7.99 (2.77-22.99) <0.01* 5.77 (1.67-19.96) 0.01*
Cessation of antithrombotic agent during ESD procedure (vs. No antithrombotic therapy) 1.82 (0.38-8.68) 0.45   
Liver cirrhosis 1.51 (0.33-6.83) 0.59   
CKD undergoing hemodialysis 19.40 (4.75-79.19) <0.01* 33.86 (4.72-242.74) <0.01*
Specimen size ≥40 mm (vs. < 40 mm) 2.84 (1.14-7.09) 0.03* 3.70 (1.09-12.52) 0.04*
Procedure time ≥90 min (vs. < 90 min) 3.05 (1.12-8.29) 0.03* 2.45 (0.74-8.16) 0.15
Second-look endoscopy (vs. No second-look endoscopy) 3.83 (0.51-29.14) 0.19   
  1. OR: Odds ratio.
  2. CI: Confidence interval.
  3. LDA: Low-dose aspirin.
  4. CKD: Chronic kidney disease.
  5. *p<0.05.