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Table 3 Association between moderate to severe GERD symptoms and intake of certain food items, comparing patients with moderate to severe symptoms to GERD-free population controls

From: Dietary guideline adherence for gastroesophageal reflux disease

Severity Moderate to severe GERD symptoms
  N OR1 95% CI
  Case Control    
Softdrinks2      
 None 70 86 1.0 (ref)   
 >1/week 84 57 1.86 1.16 2.97
Coffee3      
 None 92 55 1.0 (ref)   
 2+/day 72 44 0.89 0.52 1.51
Tea4      
 None 44 61 1.0 (ref)   
 1+/day 51 41 1.86 1.02 3.40
Alcohol5      
 None 116 57 1.0 (ref)   
 <1 drink/day 74 70 0.56 0.35 0.90
 1+ drink/day 48 70 0.83 0.46 1.48
Wine      
 None 72 86 1.0 (ref)   
 1 + glass/day 49 94 0.74 0.45 1.23
Beer      
 None 53 99 1.0 (ref)   
 1 + drink/day 29 101 0.54 0.31 0.96
Liquor      
 None 31 126 1.0 (ref)   
 1 + shot/day 36 99 1.50 0.85 2.66
Citrus      
 <2servings/week 106 125 1.0 (ref)   
 2+/week 59 133 0.62 0.41 0.94
Tomatoes      
 None 55 176 1.0 (ref)   
 1+/week 48 144 1.10 0.70 1.75
Fried foods      
 <1serving/week 42 189 1.0 (ref)   
 1+ 49 143 1.52 0.94 2.45
Total fat      
 1st Tertile (<57 g/day) 67 88 1.0 (ref)   
 2nd Tertile 50 76 1.67 1.03 2.71
 3rd T >90 g/day 66 52 1.77 1.07 2.93
Portion size      
 <20% large portion 58 83 1.0 (ref)   
 40 +% 55 56 1.30 0.78 2.19
  1. 1Models are adjusted for smoking and education.
  2. 2Not including diet soda.
  3. 3Includes both caffeinated and decaffeinated types.
  4. 4Excludes herbal tea.
  5. 5Excludes individuals who are occasional drinkers (more than once a year but less than one drink/week).