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Table 3 Improvement degrees of GSRS after 8-week treatments of RKT or placebo

From: Clinical characteristics of elderly patients with proton pump inhibitor-refractory non-erosive reflux disease from the G-PRIDE study who responded to rikkunshito

  RKT group PL group   P Subscale domain
(Questions)     
GSRS01 (abdominal pain) 0.5 ± 1.4 0.7 ± 1.7 0.425 Abdominal pain
GSRS02 (heartburn) 1.4 ± 1.4 0.8 ± 1.8 0.240 Reflux syndrome
GSRS03 (acid regurgitation) 1.4 ± 1.9* 0.6 ± 1.6 0.038 Reflux syndrome
GSRS04 (hunger pains) 0.6 ± 1.2 0.6 ± 1.4 0.785 Abdominal pain
GSRS05 (nausea) 0.8 ± 1.6 0.1 ± 1.5 0.062 Abdominal pain
GSRS06 (borborygmus) 0.6 ± 1.4 0.5 ± 1.4 0.944 Indigestion syndrome
GSRS07 (abdominal distension) 1.0 ± 2.0* 0.2 ± 1.8 0.038 Indigestion syndrome
GSRS08 (eructation) 1.0 ± 1.4 0.3 ± 1.9 0.197 Indigestion syndrome
GSRS09 (increased flatus) 0.8 ± 1.4 0.6 ± 1.8 0.524 Indigestion syndrome
GSRS10 (constipation) 0.8 ± 1.6* 0.2 ± 1.4 0.034 Constipation syndrome
GSRS11 (diarrhea) 0.5 ± 1.5 0.6 ± 1.4 0.661 Diarrhea syndrome
GSRS12 (loose stools) 0.3 ± 1.5 0.6 ± 1.5 0.260 Diarrhea syndrome
GSRS13 (hard stools) 0.6 ± 1.5 0.4 ± 1.5 0.479 Constipation syndrome
GSRS14 (urgent need for defecation) 0.6 ± 1.4 0.4 ± 1.5 0.339 Diarrhea syndrome
GSRS15 (feeling of incomplete evacuation) 0.5 ± 1.4 0.4 ± 1.5 0.518 Constipation syndrome
(Subscale score)     
Abdominal pain 0.6 ± 1.0 0.5 ± 1.3 0.538  
Reflux syndrome 1.4 ± 1.5 0.7 ± 1.6 0.064  
Indigestion syndrome 0.8 ± 1.2 0.4 ± 1.4 0.211  
Constipation syndrome 0.6 ± 1.2 0.3 ± 1.3 0.094  
Diarrhea syndrome 0.5 ± 1.3 0.5 ± 1.3 0.677  
Overall score 0.8 ± 0.9 0.5 ± 1.1 0.113  
  1. GSRS, Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale; the 15 GSRS items are divided into the following 5 scales: abdominal pain (abdominal pain, hunger pain, and nausea), reflux syndrome (heartburn and acid regurgitation), diarrhea syndrome (diarrhea, loose stools, and urgent need for defecation), indigestion syndrome (borborygmus, abdominal distension, eructation, and increased flatus), and constipation syndrome (constipation, hard stools, and a feeling of incomplete evacuation). Values were expressed as mean ± SD. *P < 0.05, significant difference between each paired group (Wilcoxon’s signed rank test).