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Table 3 Sub-group analyses, as well as dose–response relationship, on the association of physical activity and esophageal cancer risk

From: Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of esophageal cancer, particularly esophageal adenocarcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Groups Categories No. of Studies Adjusted OR 95% CI Heterogeneity within groups (I2) P-difference between groups
Study Design Case–control 5 0.59 0.40-0.88 51 0.11
Cohort 4 0.84 0.71-1.00 0
Study Location Asian 2 0.43 0.09-2.00 84 0.51
Western 7 0.72 0.58-0.89 18
Study Quality High 4 0.84 0.71-1.00 0 0.11
Low 5 0.59 0.40-0.88 51
Dose–response Middle tertilea 5 0.88 0.70-1.10 19 0.41
  Highest tertilea 5 0.76 0.60-0.97 0  
  1. ausing least active people as reference category [Abbreviations: EAC-Esophageal adenocarcinoma; ESCC-Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma].
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