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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the included studies

From: Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of esophageal cancer, particularly esophageal adenocarcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis

First Author, Year of Publication Study Setting; Location Time Period; Follow-up Total no. of participants No. of esophageal cancer cases (EAC/ESCC) Physical activity domain Physical activity measurement; valid/reliable Outcome measurement Variables adjusted for
Cohort Studies
Huerta, 2010 [15] Popula`tion-based; Europe (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition); 25-70y old men and women Recruitment: 1992–2000; F/U: 8.8y 420,449 Total: 85 Recreational + Occupational (separate also) Self-administered questionnaire; Yes Central Cancer Registries; health insurance records, cancer and pathology hospital registries, active follow-up 1,2,3,5,6,7,8
EAC: 85
ESCC: NA
Leitzmann, 2009 [16] Population-based; USA (NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study); 50-71y old men and women Recruitment: 1995–1996; F/U: 8y 487,732 Total: 523 Recreational Self-administered questionnaire; Yes Central Cancer Registry 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9
EAC: 149
ESCC: 374
Wannamethee, 2001 [23] Population-based; England (British Regional Heart Study); 40–59 y old men Recruitment: 1978–1980; F/U 18.8y 7,588 Total: 65 Recreational Self-administered questionnaire; Yes Central Cancer Registry, death certificates, postal follow-up 1,2,3,5,6,9
EAC: NR
ESCC: NR
Yun, 2008 [24] Population-based; Korea (National Health Examination Program); >40y old men Recruitment: 1996; F/U 6y 444,963 Total: 293 Recreational Self-administered questionnaire; Yes Central Cancer registry 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,10
EAC: NR
     ESCC: NR     
Case–control Studies
Balbuena, 2008 [26] Hospital-based; Canada 2002-2004 327 Total: 57 NR NR NR NR
EAC: 57
ESCC: NA
Brownson, 1991 [25] Cancer Registry; USA; >20y men 1984-1989 17,147 (all cancerpatients) Total: 237 Occupational Job-title based; No Central Cancer Registry 1,2,3,5
EAC: NR
ESCC: NR
Etemadi, 2012 [27] Hospital-based; Iran 2003-2007 871 Total: 300 Occupational Self-administered questionnaire; No Gastroenterology Clinic, based on histological validation 1,2,5,8,9
EAC: NA
ESCC: 300
Parent, 2010 [13] Population-based; Canada; 35-70y old men 1979-1985 784 Total: 99 Recreational + Occupational (separate also) Interviewer-administered questionnaire; No Central Cancer Registry, with independent validation 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,9
EAC: NR
ESCC: NR
Vigen, 2006 [14] Population-based; USA; 30-74y old men and women 1992-1997 1,983 Total: 212 Occupational Job-title based; No Central Cancer Surveillance Program 1,2,3,4,5,9
EAC: 212
ESCC: NA
Dar 2013* [28] Hospital-based; India 2008-2012 2,367 Total: 703 Occupational Job-title based; No Hospital oncology clinic, based on histological validation 1,2,4,5,6,7,9
EAC: NA
     ESCC: 703     
  1. *additional study identified during the peer review process with an updated search (1-Age, 2-Sex, 3-Obesity (BMI, Weight), 4-Race/Ethnicity, 5- Smoking, 6-Alcohol, 7-Dietary factors, 8-Family history of esophageal cancer, 9-Education and Socioeconomic status, 10-Diabetes) [Abbreviations: EAC-Esophageal adenocarcinoma; ESCC-Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; F/U-Follow-up; NA-Not applicable; NR-Not reported].
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