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Table 3 Factors associated with persistently reduced quality of life* in treated coeliac disease patients

From: Predictors of persistent symptoms and reduced quality of life in treated coeliac disease patients: a large cross-sectional study

Variable   n Reduced, % OR 95% CI p-value
Gender Male 144 24 1.00   
  Female 452 25 1.07 0.69-1.67 0.777
Present age, years < 25 12 10 1.00   
  25-60 380 26 3.21 0.40-25.66 0.272
  > 60 204 21 2.40 0.30-19.51 0.413
Age at diagnosis, years < 25 79 25 1.00   
  25-60 457 25 0.97 0.56-1.68 0.911
  > 60 60 22 0.82 0.37-1.81 0.617
Symptoms at diagnosis Gastrointestinal 410 26 1.00   
  Extraintestinal 95 19 0.65 0.37-1.14 0.136
  Screen-detected 91 22 0.79 0.46-1.36 0.389
Duration of symptoms before diagnosis, years No symptoms 37 8 1.00   
  ≤ 10 350 24 3.58 1.07-11.95 0.038
  > 10 182 28 4.41 1.30-15.01 0.017
Severity of symptoms at diagnosis No symptoms 62 18 1.00   
  Moderate 457 26 1.61 0.81-3.20 0.170
  Severe 77 22 1.31 0.56-3.06 0.527
Site of diagnosis Hospital 446 25 1.00   
  Primary care 149 24 0.97 0.63-1.50 0.902
Coeliac disease in family Yes 372 25 1.00   
  No 224 24 0.97 0.66-1.42 0.864
Type 1 diabetes mellitus No 582 25 1.00   
  Yes 14 21 0.84 0.23-3.04 0.785
Thyroid disease No 489 24 1.00   
  Yes 107 25 1.05 0.65-1.70 0.845
Malignancy No 565 25 1.00   
  Yes 31 13 0.44 0.15-1.28 0.132
Psychiatric disease No 578 23 1.00   
  Yes 18 67 6.63 2.44-17.99 <0.001
Neurologic disease No 520 23 1.00   
  Yes 76 33 1.62 0.96-2.72 0.070
Other food intolerance No 470 24 1.00   
  Yes 126 28 1.24 0.80-1.94 0.335
Other gastrointestinal disease No 388 23 1.00   
  Yes 208 32 1.56 1.00-2.45 0.052
Any coeliac disease-related co-morbidity No 72 26 1.00   
  Yes 523 24 0.89 0.51-1.56 0.691
Strict gluten-free diet Yes 523 24 1.00   
  No 73 27 1.19 0.69-2.07 0.539
Consumption of oats No 105 22 1.00   
  Yes 487 25 1.19 0.72-1.98 0.497
Duration of diet, years > 10 270 23 1.00   
  5-10 195 23 0.96 0.61-1.52 0.875
  <5 131 29 1.35 0.84-2.18 0.221
Professional dietary advice Yes 484 24 1.00   
  No 112 28 1.23 0.77-1.95 0.385
Regular follow-up Yes 166 24 1.00   
  No 412 24 1.00 0.65-1.52 0.986
  1. *Defined as a score >1 standard deviation from the mean Psychological General Well-Being total score of healthy controls; CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio defined by bivariate logistic regression.