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Table 2 Factors associated with persistent gastrointestinal symptoms* in treated coeliac disease patients

From: Predictors of persistent symptoms and reduced quality of life in treated coeliac disease patients: a large cross-sectional study

Variable   n Symptoms, % OR 95% CI p-value
Gender Male 144 22 1.00   
  Female 452 26 1.26 0.80-1.97 0.317
Present age, years < 25 12 20 1.00   
  25-60 380 24 1.25 0.26-6.01 0.778
  > 60 204 27 1.51 0.31-7.33 0.611
Age at diagnosis, years < 25 79 13 1.00   
  25-60 457 27 2.86 1.38-5.91 0.050
  > 60 60 20 1.99 0.77-5.10 0.154
Symptoms at diagnosis Gastrointestinal 410 27 1.00   
  Extraintestinal 95 17 0.56 0.31-1.00 0.050
  Screen-detected 91 24 0.88 0.52-1.49 0.636
Duration of symptoms before diagnosis, years No symptoms 37 11 1.00   
  ≤ 10 350 22 2.33 0.80-6.77 0.121
  > 10 182 34 4.16 1.41-12.28 0.010
Severity of symptoms at diagnosis No symptoms 62 13 1.00   
  Moderate 457 25 2.27 1.05-4.91 0.037
  Severe 77 31 3.06 1.26-7.41 0.013
Site of diagnosis Hospital 446 25 1.00   
  Primary care 149 25 1.01 0.66-1.55 0.967
Coeliac disease in family Yes 372 24 1.00   
  No 224 25 1.02 0.73-1.57 0.731
Type 1 diabetes mellitus No 582 25 1.00   
  Yes 14 29 1.23 0.38-3.97 0.735
Thyroid disease No 489 22 1.00   
  Yes 107 36 2.02 1.29-3.16 0.002
Malignancy No 565 25 1.00   
  Yes 31 26 1.04 0.47-2.43 0.884
Psychiatric disease No 578 24 1.00   
  Yes 18 39 1.99 0.76-5.22 0.164
Neurologic disease No 520 24 1.00   
  Yes 76 30 1.38 0.81-2.35 0.231
Other food intolerance No 470 22 1.00   
  Yes 126 33 1.74 1.13-2.67 0.012
Other gastrointestinal disease No 388 22 1.00   
  Yes 208 34 1.80 1.16-2.80 0.009
Any coeliac disease-related co-morbidity No 72 14 1.00   
  Yes 523 26 2.20 1.10-4.40 0.027
Strict gluten-free diet Yes 523 24 1.00   
  No 73 27 1.17 0.68-2.04 0.570
Consumption of oats No 105 25 1.00   
  Yes 487 23 0.87 0.54-1.41 0.568
Duration of diet, years > 10 270 27 1.00   
  5-10 195 23 0.80 0.51-1.25 0.326
  <5 131 25 0.92 0.57-1.42 0.730
Professional dietary advice Yes 484 24 1.00   
  No 112 27 1.15 0.72-1.83 0.564
Regular follow-up Yes 166 25 1.00   
  No 412 23 0.93 0.61-1.41 0.721
  1. *Defined as a score >1 standard deviation from the mean Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale total score of healthy controls; CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio defined by bivariate logistic regression.