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Table 4 Pooled relative risks and 95% CI for coffee consumption and liver cancer risk

From: Consumption of coffee associated with reduced risk of liver cancer: a meta-analysis

Study No. of studies No. of cases Relative risk (95% CI)          Heterogeneity
     Q P I2(%)
High versus non/almost never intake       
All studies 16 3,622 0.50 (0.42–0.59) 16.71 0.337 10.2%
Study design       
Cohort studies 7 1,309 0.48 (0.38–0.62) 2.47 0.676 0.0%
Case–control studies 9 2,313 0.50 (0.40–0.63) 12.38 0.125 36.8%
Study region       
Asia 11 1,892 0.45 (0.36–0.56) 7.86 0.642 0.0%
Europe 5 1,730 0.57 (0.44–0.75) 7.09 0.131 43.6%
Study gender       
Male 4 583 0.38 (0.25–0.56) 1.83 0.609 0.0%
Female 4 247 0.60 (0.33–1.10) 0.94 0.815 0.0%
Adjustment for main confoundersa       
Adjusted 11 2,512 0.54 (0.46–0.66) 8.5 0.581 0.0%
Unadjusted 5 1,110 0.39 (0.28–0.54) 5.34 0.254 25.1%
  1. amain confounder: hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infection or history of liver disease.