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Table 3 Characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis

From: Consumption of coffee associated with reduced risk of liver cancer: a meta-analysis

Author Design Study population Study period and outcome Case/Control Coffee consumption Risk estimate (95% CI) Covariate adjustments
Kuper et al. [11], 2000 HCCS Greece 1995–1998 HCC incidence 333/360 Nondrinkers 1 Age, gender, years of schooling, HBsAg and/or anti-HCV status
<20 cups/week 1.1 (0.5–2.6)
≥20 cups/week 0.9 (0.4–2.5)
Gallus et al. [12], 2002 HCCS Greece Italy 1995–1998 834/1912 Nondrinkers 1.0 Age, sex, smoking, alcohol drinking, history of diabetes or hepatitis, education, BMI
1984–1997 HCC incidence 1 cup/day 1.2 (0.9–1.6)
2 cup/day 1.0 (0.7–1.3)
≥3 cups/day 0.7 (0.5–1.0)
Shimazu et al. [20], 2005 CS1 Japan 1984–1992 Primary liver cancer incidence 70/22404 Nondrinkers 1.0 Age, sex, smoking, alcohol drinking, history of liver disease
occasionally 0.56 (0.33–0.97)
≥1 cups/day 0.53 (0.28–1.00)
Shimazu et al. [20], 2005 CS2 Japan 1990–1997 Primary liver cancer incidence 47/38703 Nondrinkers 1.0 Age, sex, smoking, alcohol drinking, history of liver disease
occasionally 1.05 (0.52~2.16)
≥1 cups/day 0.68 (0.31~1.51)
Kurozawa et al. [22], 2005 CS Japan 1988–1999 HCC mortality 258/83966 Total   Age, sex, smoking, alcohol habits, history of diabetes or liver disease, education
Nondrinkers 1.0
<1 cup/day 0.83 (0.54–1.25)
≥1 cup/day 0.50 (0.31–0.79)
Men  
Nondrinkers 1.0
<1 cup/day 0.91(0.57–1.45)
≥1 cup/day 0.49(0.28–0.85)
Women  
Nondrinkers 1.0
<1 cup/day 0.64 (0.27–1.51)
≥1 cup/day 0.51 (0.20–1.31)
Inoue et al. [21], 2005 CS Japan 1990–2001 HCC incidence 334/90452 Men and women   Age, sex, study area, ethanol intake, green vegetable, green tea and smoking
Almost never 1.0
1–2 day/week 0.75 (0.56–1.01)
3–4 day/week 0.79 (0.55–1.14)
1–2 cups/day 0.52 (0.38–0.73)
3–4 cups/day 0.48 (0.28–0.83)
≥5 cups/day 0.24 (0.08–0.77)
Men  
Almost never 1.0
1–2 day/week 0.74 (0.52–1.05)
3–4 day/week 0.76 (0.50–1.16)
1–2 cups/day 0.55 (0.38–0.80)
3–4 cups/day 0.41 (0.21–0.77)
≥5 cups/day 0.27 (0.09–0.87)
women  
Almost never 1.0
1–2 day/week 0.77 (0.43–1.37)
3–4 day/week 0.89 (0.43–1.84)
1–2 cups/day 0.43 (0.20–0.90)
3–4 cups/day 0.89 (0.31–2.59)
≥5 cups/day -----
Gelatti et al. [13], 2005 HCCS Italy 1994–2003 HCC incidence 250/500 Nondrinkers 1.0 Age, sex, alcohol drinking, HBV and/or HCV infection
1–2 cups/day 0.8 (0.4–1.3)
3–4 cups/day 0.4 (0.2–0.8)
≥5 cups/day 0.3 (0.1–0.7)
Ohfuji et al. [14], 2006 HCCS Japan 2001–2002 HCC incidence 73/253 Nondrinkers 1.0 Age, sex, smoking, alcohol drinking, time since first identification of liver disease, BMI, disease severity, family history of liver disease, interferon therapy
<1 cup/day 0.61 (0.18–2.03)
≥1 cup/day 0.38 (0.13–1.12)
Tanaka et al. [15], 2007 PCCS Japan 2001–2004 HCC incidence 209/1253 Nondrinkers 1.0 Age, sex, smoking status, heavy alcohol drinking,
occasionally 0.33 (0.22~0.48)
1–2 cups/day 0.27 (0.15~0.48)
≥3 cups/day 0.22 (0.11~0.43)
Montella et al. [16], 2007 HCCS Italy 1999–2002 HCC incidence 185/412 Abstainers 2.28 (0.99–5.24) Age, sex, alcohol drinking, HBV and/or HCV infection, education, smoking, alcohol drinking
<14 cups/week 1.0
14–20 cups/week 0.54 (0.27–1.07)
21–27 cups/week 0.57 (0.25–1.32)
≥28 cups/week 0.43 (0.16–1.13)
Wakai et al. [17], 2007 NCCS Japan 1988–1990 HCC incidence 96/3444 Nondrinkers 1.0 Age, sex, smoking, alcohol drinking, consumption of areca,educational levels, ethnicity,source of hospital
<1 cup/day 0.77 (0.45–1.32)
≥1 cup/day 0.49 (0.25–0.96)
Hu et al. [23], 2008 CS Finland 1997–2002 HCC incidence 128/60323 Total   Age, sex, smoking, alcohol drinking, education, study year, diabetes and chronic liver disease BMI and during follow up.
0–1 cup/day 1.0
2–3 cups/day 0.66 (0.37–1.16)
4–5 cups/day 0.44 (0.25–0.77)
6–7 cups/day 0.38 (0.21–0.69)
≥8 cups/day 0.32 (0.16~0.62)
Men  
0–1 cup/day 1.0
2–3 cups/day 0.68 (0.35–1.31)
4–5 cups/day 0.35 (0.18–0.71)
6–7 cups/day 0.31 (0.15–0.63)
≥8 cups/day 0.28 (0.13–0.61)
Women  
0–1 cup/day 1.0
2–3 cups/day 0.62 (0.19–2.04)
4–5 cups/day 0.60 (0.20–1.82)
6–7 cups/day 0.58 (0.19–1.82)
≥8 cups/day 0.41 (0.10–1.70)
Ohishi et al. [18], 2008 NCCS Japan 1999–2002 HCC incidence 224/644 Nondrinkers 1.0 Hepatitis virus infection, alcohol consumption, smoking habits, BMI, diabetes mellitus, and radiation dose to the liver
Daily 0.40 (0.16–1.02)
Inoue et al. [24], 2009 CS Japan 1993–1994 HCC incidence 110/18815 Total   Age, sex, area, smoking, alcohol drinking, BMI, diabetes mellitus, green tea consumption, serum ALTlevel, and HBV and HCV infection status
Almost never 1.0
<1 cup/day 0.67 (0.42–1.07)
1–2 cups/day 0.49 (0.27–0.91)
≥3 cups/day 0.54 (0.21–1.39)
Men  
Almost never 1.0
<1 cup/day 0.79 (0.46–1.37)
1–2 cups/day 0.37 (0.17–0.81)
≥3 cups/day 0.32 (0.10–1.10)
Women  
Almost never 1.0
<1 cup/day 0.39 (0.15–1.03)
1–2 cups/day 0.92 (0.36–2.38)
≥3 cups/day 0.69 (0.11–4.22)
Johnson et al. [25], 2011 CS Chinese 1993–2006 HCC incidence 362/61321 Nondrinkers 1.0 Age at recruitment, sex, dialect group, year of recruitment, BMI, level of education, consumption of alcoholic beverages, smoking, black tea and green tea intake, and history of diabetes.
0-<1 drinkers/day 0.94 (0.63–1.40)
1-<2 drinkers/day 1.17 (0.87–1.56)
2-<3 drinkers/day 0.78 (0.56–1.07)
≥3 drinkers/day 0.56 (0.31–1.00)
Leung et al. [19], 2011 HCCS HongKong 2007–2008 HCC incidence 109/125 <1 time/week 1.0 Age, sex, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, tea consumption and physical activity
      1–3 times/week 0.58 (0.24–1.36)  
      ≥4 times/week 0.41 (0.19–0.89)  
  1. ALT: alanine aminotransferase; BMI: body mass index; CI: confidence interval; HbsAg: hepatitis B surface antigen; HCCS: hospital-based case–control study; PCCS: population-based case–control study; NCCS: nested case–control study; CS: cohort study; HCC: hepatocellular carcinoma.