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Table 3 Comparison of EGF genotype frequencies in HCC patients with control subjects among non-Asians in Los Angeles, California, and Chinese in southern Guangxi, China

From: Genetic polymorphisms of epidermal growth factor in relation to risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: two case-control studies

Subgroup EGF 61A > G Non-Asians in Los Angeles Chinese in southern Guangxi
Ca/Co* OR (95% CI)† OR (95% CI)‡ Ca/Co* OR (95% CI)† OR (95% CI)‡
All subjects A/A 28/60 1.00 1.00 126/118 1.00 1.00
A/G 61/102 1.61 (0.89–2.90) 2.04 (1.03–4.07) 99/107 0.87 (0.60–1.26) 0.69 (0.41–1.18)
G/G 28/63 1.34 (0.68–2.64) 1.39 (0.64–3.01) 25/20 1.17 (0.62–2.22) 0.97 (0.38–2.46)
A/G + G/G 89/165 1.52 (0.87–2.65) 1.78 (0.93–3.38) 124/127 0.91 (0.64–1.30) 0.73 (0.44–1.21)
Seronegative for all viral hepatitis markers A/A 12/52 1.00 1.00 26/101 1.00 1.00
A/G + G/G 42/146 1.65 (0.76–3.55) 1.95 (0.86–4.41) 19/109 0.65 (0.33–1.27) 0.61 (0.30–1.23)
Seropositive for any viral hepatitis markers§ A/A 16/8 1.00 1.00 100/17 1.00 1.00
A/G + G/G 47/19 1.43 (0.50–4.07) 1.62 (0.50–5.27) 105/18 0.91 (0.44–1.88) 0.88 (0.41–1.87)
Non-drinkers or <3 drinks of alcoholic beverages per day A/A 16/45 1.00 1.00 114/115 1.00 1.00
A/G + G/G 47/139 1.12 (0.56–2.23) 1.60 (0.72–3.52) 104/121 0.86 (0.60–1.25) 0.75 (0.45–1.26)
3+ drinks of alcoholic beverages per day A/A 12/15 1.00 1.00 12/3 1.00 1.00
A/G + G/G 42/26 4.34 (1.37–13.74) 3.44 (0.93–12.76) 20/6 0.74 (0.12–4.70) 0.32 (0.02–4.83)
Non-smokers or long-term ex-smokers A/A 17/40 1.00 1.00 71/78 1.00 1.00
A/G + G/G 53/122 1.55 (0.75–3.21) 1.86 (0.83–4.18) 70/83 0.92 (0.58–1.45) 0.83 (0.44–1.57)
Current smokers or recent ex-smokers A/A 11/20 1.00 1.00 55/40 1.00 1.00
A/G + G/G 36/43 1.59 (0.63–3.99) 1.52 (0.50–4.63) 54/44 0.87 (0.49–1.54) 0.51 (0.21–1.23)
  1. * Number of cases/number of controls.
  2. † Adjusted for age, sex, and race; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.
  3. ‡ Further adjusted for level of education, smoking (non-smokers or long-term ex-smokers, current smokers or recent ex-smokers with <20 cigarettes/day, current smokers or recent ex-smokers with 20+ cigarettes/day), alcohol consumption (non-drinkers, <7, 7–14, 14–21, and 21+ drinks/day), and serology of hepatitis B and C virus. In subgroup analyses, the stratifying variable was not input as a covariate.
  4. § Positive for hepatitis B surface antigen, antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, or antibodies to hepatitis C virus.
  5. ¶ Subjects who quit smoking 10 or more years ago were long-term ex-smokers whereas those who quit smoking less than 10 years ago were recent ex-smokers.