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Table 1 Distributions of demographic characteristics in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and control subjects by study location

From: Genetic polymorphisms of epidermal growth factor in relation to risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: two case-control studies

  Non-Asians in Los Angeles, California Chinese in southern Guangxi, China
Demographics HCC patients (n = 117) Control subjects (n = 225) HCC patients (n = 250) Control subjects (n = 245)
Age (years) 60.4 59.3 49.3 49.5
  2-sided P 0.37 0.87
Sex (%)     
 Males 80 (68.4) 136 (60.4) 220 (88.0) 216 (88.2)
 Females 37 (31.6) 89 (39.6) 30 (12.0) 29 (11.8)
  2-sided P 0.15 0.96
Race/ethnicity (%)     
 Non-Hispanic white Americans 69 (59.0) 179 (79.6)
 Hispanic Americans 39 (33.3) 34 (15.1)
 African Americans 9 (7.7) 12 (5.3)
 Chinese – Han ethnicity 198 (79.2) 196 (80.0)
 Chinese – Zhuang/Yao ethnicity 52 (20.8) 49 (20.0)
  2-sided P 0.0002 0.83
Level of education (%)     
 Below high school 22 (18.8) 17 (7.6) 115 (46.0) 102 (41.6)
 High School graduates 32 (27.3) 51 (22.7) 79 (31.6) 87 (35.5)
 Some college/occupational school 40 (34.2) 75 (33.3) 39 (15.6) 33 (13.5)
 College graduates or above 23 (19.7) 82 (36.4) 17 (6.8) 23 (9.4)
  2-sided P 0.001 0.47
Cigarette smoking     
 Non- or long ex-smokers 70 (59.8) 162 (72.0) 141 (56.4) 161 (65.7)
 Current or recent ex-smokers 47 (40.2) 63 (28.0) 109 (43.6) 84 (34.3)
 <20 cigarettes/day 14 (12.0) 26 (11.6) 33 (13.2) 28 (11.4)
 ≥20 cigarettes/day 33 (28.2) 37 (16.4) 76 (30.4) 56 (22.9)
  2-sided 0.03 0.09
No. alcoholic drinks/day     
 Nondrinkers 35 (29.9) 74 (32.9) 158 (63.2) 205 (83.7)
 <3 28 (23.9) 110 (48.9) 60 (24.0) 31 (12.7)
 ≥3 54 (46.2) 41 (18.2) 32 (12.8) 9 (3.7)
  2-sided P <0.0001 <0.0001
Hepatitis B serology     
 Negative 84 (71.8) 198 (88.0) 45 (18.0) 212 (86.5)
 Anti-HBc positive only 30 (25.6) 27 (12.0)
 HBsAg positive 3 (2.6) 0 205 (82.0) 33 (13.5)
  2-sided P 0.0002 <0.0001
Hepatitis C serology     
 Anti-HCV negative 59 (50.4) 224 (99.6) 241 (96.4) 242 (98.8)
 Anti-HCV positive 58 (49.6) 1 (0.4) 9 (3.6) 3 (1.2)
  2-sided P <0.0001 0.09
Hepatitis B/C serology     
 Both negative 54 (46.2) 198 (88.0) 45 (18.0) 210 (85.7)
 Either positive† 63 (53.9) 27 (12.0) 205 (82.0) 35 (14.3)
  2-sided P <0.0001 <0.0001
  1. * Anti-HBC, antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen; HBsAg, hepatitis B surface antigen; anti-HCV, antibodies to hepatitis C virus.
  2. † Positive for hepatitis B surface antigen, antibodies to the hepatitis B surface antigen (for Los Angeles subjects only), or antibodies to hepatitis C virus.