Effect of IκBαM overexpression on metastatic potential of gastric cancer cells. SNU-638 (A-C) cells and MKN1(D and E) cells were infected with either IκBαM retroviral vector or an empty (EGFP) vector. (A and D) Confluent cell monolayers were wounded and cell migration was analyzed by wound-healing assay 48 h after scratching. (B and E) Cells were seeded in the upper chamber coated with Matrigel and invasion ability was measured 48 h after cell plating. Results were calculated as percentages relative to control cells infected with an empty vector. Each bar represents the mean ± SD (n = 4). * P < 0.05 versus control cells infected with an empty vector. (C) The protein expressions of E-cadherin, Snail, MMP9 and β-actin expressions were determined by immunoblotting.