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Table 1 Effects of berberine on intestinal tumor multiplicity in Apc min/+ mice ( x ¯ ± S , n= 10)

From: Chemopreventive effects of berberine on intestinal tumor development in Apc min/+mice

  Untreated mice 0.05% berberine 0.1% berberine
Total number 30.63 ± 1.69 18.50 ± 1.51* 11.50 ± 2.05$, &
Small intestinal 28.00 ± 2.00 16.69 ± 1.03* 10.50 ± 1.77$, &
    Proximal 8.38 ± 1.51 5.25 ± 1.16* 3.88 ± 0.64$, §
     Middle 9.50 ± 1.77 5.56 ± 0.50* 4.25 ± 1.04$
     Distal 10.13 ± 1.55 5.88 ± 0.83* 2.38 ± 0.92$, &
     <1 mm 8.13 ± 0.83 6.81 ± 0.65# 5.25 ± 1.04$, §
    1-2 mm 10.13 ± 1.36 6.19 ± 0.84* 3.25 ± 0.46$, &
     >2 mm 9.75 ± 2.05 3.69 ± 1.03* 2.00 ± 0.76$, §
Colon 2.63 ± 0.74 1.81 ± 0.65# 1.00 ± 0.46$, §
  1. *, P < 0.01 and #, P < 0.05, 0.05% berberine-treated vs untreated Apc min/+ mice; $, P < 0.01 and , P < 0.05, 0.1% berberine-treated vs untreated Apc min/+ mice; &, P < 0.01 and §, P < 0.05, 0.1% berberine vs 0.05% berberine-treated Apc min/+ mice.