Table 3 Costs among HCV patients and controls

HCV Patients Non-HCV Matched controls
(n = 286) (n = 56,880) (n = 286)
Mean SD Mean SD p-value* Mean SD p-value
Indirect costs
Absenteeism € 2,038.63 € 6,048.12 € 1,357.90 € 5,326.81 <.001 € 1,253.43 € 4,884.92 .011
Presenteeism € 5,493.91 € 6,898.97 € 3,368.88 € 5,479.10 <.001 € 3,298.06 € 5,454.64 .001
Total indirect € 7,532.54 € 9,879.57 € 4,729.20 € 7,786.24 <.001 € 4,576.29 € 7,365.19 .002
Direct costs
Physician visits € 486.61 € 649.61 € 288.54 € 410.89 <.001 € 329.52 € 536.32 <.001
ER visits € 71.68 € 233.24 € 40.72 € 207.97 .007 € 42.94 € 137.86 .360
Hospitalizations € 588.77 € 1,867.19 € 288.19 € 2,754.17 <.001 € 279.62 € 991.20 .075
Total direct costs € 1,147.06 € 2,265.46 € 617.45 € 2,889.90 <.001 € 652.07 € 1,373.94 <.001
Total costs € 4,587.54 € 8,653.64 € 3,291.01 € 7,154.33 <.001 € 2,685.28 € 5,530.30 <.001
1. Comparisons indirect costs include only the employed subsamples: 138 HCV patients, 32,179 non-HCV, and 134 matched controls. Comparisons of direct and total costs include the full samples. Unemployed respondents’ indirect costs are included in total costs as €0.
2. *Indicates the significance comparing the HCV group with the unmatched control group. †Indicates the significance comparing the HCV group with the matched control group.