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Table 3 Results of oesophageal testing

From: Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in type 2 diabetics: symptom load and pathophysiologic aspects - a retro-pro study

  T2D GERD patients Non-diabetic GERD patients OR (95% CI) p
n = 65 n = 130
Upper GI endoscopy
Hiatal hernia (n [%]) 39 [60.0] 118 [90.8] 0.49 (0.23;0.98) <0.001
Oesophagitis (n [%]) 30 [46.2] 43 [33.1] 1.86 (1.01;3.43) n.s.
Barrett metaplasia (n [%]) 11 [16.9] 35 [26.9] 0.58 (0.27;123) n.s.
Histology
Esophagitis (n [%]) 38 [58.5] 73 [56.2] 1.32 (0.73;2.42) n.s.
Barrett metaplasia (n [%]) 14 [21.5] 23 [17.7] 1.42 (0.67;3.02) n.s.
Low-grade dysplasia (n [%]) 7 [10.8] 5 [3.8] 3.80 (1.07;13.51) n.s.
High-grade dysplasia (n [%]) 1 [1.5] 0 [0] 3.28*e9 (0;inf) n.s.
Helicobacter pylori (n [%]) 17 [26.2] 10 [7.7] 4.72 (1.97;11.32) 0.001
Manometry
LES pressure (mm Hg, median [IQR]) 10.0 [6.1;15.0] # 7.2 [3.7;11.7] 1.06 (1.01;1.12) 0.016
Absent or decreased peristalsis (n [%]) 16 [27.6] # 23 [17.8] + 1.76 (0.85;3.65) n.s.
Twenty-four-hour oesophageal pH-monitoring
DeMeester score (median [IQR]) 24.6 [12.1;45.2] 29.7 [21.0;44.6] 0.99 (0.79;1.01) n.s.
Total relax. time (%, median [IQR]) 6.7 [4.0;11.5] 6.9 [4.6;12.5] 0.99 (0.67;1.47) n.s.
Upright relax. time (%, median [IQR]) 7.2 [4.1;13.2] 8.3 [4.7;14.0] 0.99 (0.96;1.03) n.s.
Lying relax. time (%, median [IQR]) 3.1 [0.0;12.8] 3.4 [0.6;8.6] 1.01 (0.97;1.04) n.s.
Barium esophagogram
Hiatal hernia (n [%]) 32 [49.2] 92 [70.8] 0.52 (0.28;0.96) 0.035
Reflux (n [%]) 28 [43.1] 68 [52.3] 0.81 (0.44;1.42) n.s.
  1. n.s. not significant; # n = 58 (seven patients did not tolerate manometry), + n = 129 (one patient did not tolerate manometry), p p-value; all parameters were tested using univariate logistic regression models.