Hypothesis of the role of LCN2, CXCL1 and CXCL9 in the pathogenesis of NASH. Inflammatory chemokines, CXCL1 and CXCL9, are produced in the NASH liver and lead to the recruitment of inflammatory cells, such as lymphocytes and neutrophils. Expression of the CXCL1 gene is known to be accompanied by neutrophil infiltration, and to lead to hepatic dysfunction . CXCL9 is a molecule that is chemotactic for lymphocytes . The adipokine, LCN2, was observed in the cytoplasm of parenchymal hepatic cells, especially those in the vicinity of inflammatory cells (Figure 4D). It has been reported that LCN2 plays a role in protecting cells from the toxic effects of oxidative stress .