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Table 4 Appearance of hamster in different groups after Clostridium difficile challenge (n = 8 each)

From: The protective effect of recombinant Lactococcus lactis oral vaccine on a Clostridium difficile-infected animal model

Manifestations Control group Empty plasmid group Secreted-protein plasmid group Membrane-anchored plasmid group
Diarrhea All on day 1 All on day 1 2 on day 1 No
Perianal and tail damp Yes Yes No No
Paw and abdomen damp Six on day 2 Only one on day 2 No No
Activity Decreased Decreased Normal Normal
Response to stimulation Decreased, even disappeared Only one weakened Normal Normal
Fur luster Lackluster Normal Normal Normal
Eating Decreased Almost normal Normal Normal
Death All One No No