PPL expression in Fxr
and CA-fed cholestasis model mice. (A) Hepatic Ppl mRNA expression levels in Fxr
+/+ and Fxr
−/−mice. Seven or 8 mice per group were examined. Circles and rectangles correspond to individual animals. Horizontal bars represent averages. (B) Hepatic Ppl and Cyp7a1 mRNA expression levels in wild-type mice fed cholic acid (CA) for 7 days at the indicated doses. Five to 9 mice per group were examined. The immunoblot for PPL is also shown. Equal amounts of protein from 5 mice were combined in each group for western blotting. The immunoblot for GAPDH was used as the loading control. (C) Ppl mRNA expression in various tissues following CA feeding for 7 days. Bars for each tissue are grayscaled as indicated (darkened from left to right, tongue to skin). Bars for the liver are flagged with a number sign (#). Four samples per group were examined. (D) Hepatic mRNA expression of plakins, cell junction proteins, and intermediate filaments in wild-type mice fed CA for 7 days. Five to 9 mice per group were examined. mRNA expression levels are represented as values normalized to Gapdh. The average values in Fxr
+/+ and control diet-fed mice are set as 1.0. Values represent mean ± SD. Dsg1/2/4, desmoglein-1/-2/-4; Dsc2, desmocollin-2; Dsp, desmoplakin; Plec, plectin; Macf1, microtubule actin crosslinking factor-1; β/γ-Ctn, β/γ-catenin; Gjp1/2, gap junction protein-1/-2; E/N-Cad, E/N-cadherin; Cldn1/2/3, claudin-1/-2/-3; Ocln, occludin; Zo-1, zonula occludens-1; JAM1, junctional adhesion molecule-1; K7/8/18/19, keratin 7/8/18/19. *, **, ***: P < 0.05, 0.01, and 0.001, respectively, by Mann–Whitney U test (A) or one-way ANOVA with Dunnett’s test (B and D [vs. 0%]).